1994: “Hari hagamijwe gutsemba umututsi wese wari mu Rwanda”Me Gillet

Umunyamategeko w’Umubiligi , Eric Gillet aherutse kubazwa byinshi kuri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994, uko yakozwe, uruhare rw’ubutegetsi bwariho mu kuyishyira mu bikorwa n’uko yari kurangira nta mututsi ugisigaye mu Rwanda.

Miliyoni y’abanyarwanda yishwe n’abo basangiye igihugu mu 1994, ni ibikorwa byaranzwe n’ubwicanyi bwavukije ubuzima abasaga miliyoni, ibyo bikorwa byiswe jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, ndetse yemezwa n’umuryango w’abibumbye (Loni/UN/ONU).

Jenoside yongeye gusobanurwa birambuye na Gillet, perezida w’umuryango mpuzamahanga uharanira ubutabera na demokarasi-RCN Justice & Democratie, ni ibibazo yabazwaga mu rubanza rwa Bucyibaruta Laurent wayoboraga Perefegitura ya Gikongoro muri jenoside rukomeje kubera mu rukiko rwa rubanda i Paris mu Bufaransa.

Uwo munyamategeko yabaye mu Rwanda, mu 1990 hatangira ibitero by’Inyenzi, yagiye mu Rwanda kuyobora komisiyo mpuzamahanga yakoraga anketi ku bijyanye no guhungabanya uburenganzira bwa muntu, mu mirimo yakozwe kuva 1990 kugera muri Mutarama 1994 akorana na Alison des Forges. Nyuma akora inkuru mbarankuru, ubushakashatsi  kuri jenoside yakorewe abatusi. Ari mu basabye ko abantu bafunzwe bitwaga ibyitso cyane cyane abanyamakuru barekurwa muri icyo gihe.

Avuga ko bimwe mu byabanjirije jenoside byagaragaraga muri politiki y’u Rwanda, birimo uko uwayoboraga u Rwanda  Habyarimana Juvenal yabanje gutesha agaciro akita ibipapuro amasezerano ya Arusha yasingwaga hagati ya leta yayoboraga n’Ishyaka FPR Inkotanyi.

Hari kandi Dr Leon Mugesera, wari umwarimu muri kaminuza n’umuyobozi muri MRND wavugiye ijambo ku Kabaya ry’uko abatutsi bazasubizwa aho baturutse. Gillet avuga ko Mugesera ari we wa mbere wagaragaje mu buryo bweruye umugambi wo gutsemba abatutsi wategurwaga.

Yungamo ati “Raporo twasohoye muri 1993 zigaragaza ko interahamwe zagendaga zikora ubwicanyi hirya no hino mu Rwanda. izo raporo zagaragazaga uburyo ubwicanyi bwari bwaramaze gukorwa cyane cyane mu Bugesera muri werurwe 1992. Icyagiye kigaragara nuko ubutegetsi bwagiye bushishikariza abaturage kujya mu bwicanyi ari benshi cyane ko inzego z’ubutegetsi zari zubatse neza kuva hejuru kugera hasi hari n’ishyaka rimwe na ryo ryari rifite inzego zubatse nk’uz’ubundi butegetsi busanzwe.”

Radio Rwanda iburizwamo na RTLM

Kugirango jenoside ishoboke kandi ngo leta yahanze uburyo bw’icengezamatwara.

Ati:

“Ikindi twabonye ni ikoreshwa ry’itangazamakuru. Hari radio Rwanda ariko kubera amashyaka menshi nka radio y’igihugu ntiyashoboraga kuvugirwaho imvugo z’urwango ku buryo bworoshye icyo ni cyo cyatumye hashingwa radio RTLM yo yabivugaga mu buryo bweruye.”

Ijambo umwanzi rihishe byinshi

Gillet avuga ko mu Kuboza 1992 uwari Umukuru w’u Rwanda yasabye ingabo gutekereza neza ku mwanzi uwo ari we. Icyo gihe ngo nibwo bwa mbere hagaragajwe uwitwa umwanzi uwo ari we.

Ati “Havuzwe ko umwanzi ari umututsi n’undi wese wagerageza kubangamira urugamba rwo guhangana n’inkotanyi. Iyo nyito y’umwanzi rero yaje kwifashishwa cyane mu itegurwa rya jenoside.

…Icyakozwe ni ukumvisha abahutu ko abatutsi bose ari abanzi bityo bumwishwa ko kwica umututsi atari ikibazo ahubwo ko ari ukwica umwanzi, ibyo byakozwe nyuma yo kuvuga ko abatutsi bose bari mu gihugu bari ibyitso by’umwanzi FPR.”

Yungamo ko ibyo byatumye nta bucuti cyangwa isano iyo ari yo yose ibasha kwitambika imbere y’uwo mugambi wa jenoside; kuko ubutegetsi bwari bwarabanje kugaragagaza ko hari intambara yo guhangana n’umwanzi; bityo rero ko abahutu bose bagombaga kuyirwana, bica umwanzi.

Nta muryango uburamo imfura

Kubwa Gillet ngo hari abahutu cyakora batahise bemera uwo mugambi, ahabaga hari abategetsi nka burugumesitiri, konseye, perefe na superefe badashyigikiye umugambi wo gutoteza cyangwa kwica abatutsi nta bikorwa byahabaga. Avuga ko washoboraga kuva muri komini imwe barimo kwica abatutsi wagera mu yindi ukabona birahagaze kubera gusa ko umutegetsi uhari atabishyigikiye, aho ni mbere ya jenoside.

Aho ngo itangiriye rero naho byarabaye, atanga urugero rwa perefegitura ya Butare aho ubwicanyi bwatinze gutangira. Ibyo byanatumye ndetse hari bamwe mu bantu bagiye bahungishirizayo imiryango yabo kuko babonaga ko ho ubwicanyi bushobora kutazahagera.

Gusa ngo nyuma yaje kuhagera, nkuko asobanura impamvu

Ati ” Ndetse nanababwira ko kugirango jenoside ishoboke nyuma y’urugendo perezida Sindikubwabo Theodore (wari umukuru wa leta y’Abatabazi) yakoreye yo,  byabaye ngombwa ko bajya kuzana interahamwe zivuye ahandi . Ibyo rero birabereka ko kugirango jenoside ishoboke byagizwemo uruhare runini n’ubutegetsi byaba mu gutegura ndetse no gutanga ibikoresho n’ubundi buryo bwifashishijwe mu gukora jenoside.”

Ibyo byatumye atanganzwa n’imbaraga zashyizwe mu gutegura jenoside ku buryo amabwiriza yatanzwe agashyirwa mu bikorwa ahantu hose kandi ku buryo bukomeye, ku buryo ngo ari ibintu bigoye kumva.

Aha niho Perezida w’urukiko amubaza ku byavuzwe n’abatangabuhamya bavuze kobatatunguwe na jensoide ko hari ibintu bari baragiye babona mbere na cyera ndetse muri za 1963 kandi ko ababikoze batigeze babiryozwa na gato bakavuga ko byaba biri no mu byatije umurindi abicanyi mu 1994.

Gillet ati ” Yego twarabibonye ku cyiswe revolution (impinduramatwara) cyo mu 1959 abatutsi batangiye guhunga, nyuma y’ubwigenge hari abagerageje kugaruka ku mbaraga buri gihe rero ubutegetsi bwibasiraga abatutsi babaga barasigaye mu Rwanda bubagaragaza nk’ibyitso by’ababaga bateye. Ubwo buryo bwo kubona ibintu rero ni bwo bwakomeje kugera no mu 1990 ubwo impunzi zatangiraga urugamba rwo guharanira uburenganzira bwo kugaruka mu gihugu.”

Aha niho yungamo avuga ko muri rya jambo rya Mugesera ku Kabaya mu 1992, abivugamo, ati:

“Ikosa twakoze muri 1959 ryo kubareka mugahunga ntabwo tuzongera kurikora.”

Uwo munyamategeko avuga ko ibyo ari byo byahise bitangira gushyirwa mu bikorwa muri uwo mwaka wa 1992 aho ubwicanyi bwatangiye guhabwa intebe. Muri uwo mugambi ni ho hatangijwe icyiswe defense civile (ubwirinzi bw’abaturage) cyagombaga gukusanya intwaro zari zikenewe mu kwica abatutsi ko hari n’interahamwe zigambaga ndetse ko zizajya zica abatutsi 1000 mu minota 20.

Ati “Ibyo byavuzwe mu kwezi kwa mbere 1994 kandi koko jenoside itangiye ni ko byagenze.”

Irimburwa ry’abatutsi  n’ubukungu

Uwo munyamategeko uzi u Rwanda abajijwe niba umuntu yavuga ko hari impamvu z’ubukungu zaba zarihutishije uwo mugambi w’ubwicanyi aho babwiraga abantu ko bazigarurira amasambu n’imitungo y’abatutsi, avuga ko ikibazo cy’imitungo y’abatutsi bari barahunze cyera cyari no mu byaganirwagaho mu masezerano ya Arusha.

Ati ” Ni byo iyo mvugo na yo yakoreshejwe n’abategetsi nubwo nyamara u Rwanda ari igihugu gifite ikirere cyiza, gifite ubutaka bwera n’abaturage batari benshi cyane icyo gihe ku buryo igisubizo cyari kuba ukwica abantu.”

Yungamo ko umugambi wari uwo guhanaguraho abatutsi.

Ati “Ibyo byajyanye no gutera abantu ubwoba ko nibatica ari bo bazicwa. Igitekerezo cyari ukuvuga ngo muhanagureho neza icyitwa umututsi ku buryo ntawe uzigera yibuka ko mu Rwanda haba harabayeho umututsi, kandi nyuma yabyo ibyo bintu byose byari ibyabo bizaba bisigaye nta nyirabyo bizaba ibyanyu.

Umwanzi yari nde?

Abajijwe ku byo yavuze ko guhera mu kuboza1992 ingabo zasabwe kumenya neza umwanzi niba yari uri imbere mu gihugu, Gillet avuga ko bavugaga umwanzi gusa, bivuze nyine FPR yarwanaga ariko n’abatutsi bose ngo bari bariswe abanzi, ngo ibyo nibyo byatumye abatutsi bose bafatwa batyo abahutu bagashishikarizwa kumva ko nta ho bahuriye n’abatutsi ku buryo hari n’abataratinye kwica n’abatutsi bari bafitanye amasano mu muryango.

Abicaga uwiswe umwanzi barashimirwaga, bakagurirwa inzoga n’ibiryo, hari abatanze inkunga mu buryo butandukanye, ndetse hari banki zirimo iy’ubucuruzi (BCR) yateye inkunga uwo mugambi.

Ubutegetsi mu bundi

Abajijwe niba ubwicanyi bwakorwaga muri za 1992,1993 bwarageze ku yindi ntera bukarushaho kugira ubukana mu 1994 niba bitaraterwaga na none no kuba iruhande rw’ubutegetsi buzwi harabaye nk’ikindi nacyo cyakwitwa ubutegetsi nk’aho washoboraga kubona abantu bo hasi mu rwego runaka bitwara ahubwo nkaho ari bo bategetsi bo hejuru.

Asobanura ko ibyo byabayeho cyane mu Rwanda, aho hari abantu bitwazaga ubwoko bakishyira hejuru.

Ati “Tuzi nk’icyitwaga akazu abo ni abantu babaga bafite umujyo bakoreramo kandi bagafata ibyemezo bikomeye.

Abajijwe niba byarabaye muri jandarumori ya Gikongoro ahari capt Sebuhura wavaga mu majyaruguru ariko akiha ubuyobozi nubwo bivugwa ko major Bizimungu wo mu Majyepfo wari umukuriye yari arwaye, Gillet avuga ko nabyo byaba byo nubwo atazi mu buryo burambuye iby’aho bitaga ku Gikongoro .

Col Simba mu kurimbira abatutsi

Umucamanza ati undi muntu wavuzwe cyane muri uru rubanza ni Col Aloys Simba hari icyo wamutubwiraho?

Gillet ati “Col Simba ntabwo namukozeho ubushakashatsi ku buryo bwihariye ariko namwumvise mu rubanza rwa Neretse Fabien. Gusa icyo nzi nuko Col Simba ari muri iyo reseau (umujyo) navugaga mu kanya y’abantu bari bafite imbaraga ubutegetsi bw’abicanyi bwari bwizeye cyane mu kubufasha gushyira mu bikorwa umugambi wabwo.”

Umucamanza amubajije niba byavugwa ko mu Rwanda habayeho “association de malfaiteurs” (ihuriro ry’abagizi ba nabi) n’igihe yaba yaratangiriye.

Eric Gillet agira ati “Nta gushidikanya uwo mugambi wabayeho umuntu yahera cyane cyane mu ntangiriro za 1993 igihe hashyirwagaho radio RTLM bigakurikirwa n’amagambo yavugwaga n’abategetsi mu nzego zose tukibuka cyane cyane nka col Bagosora birakomeza rero kugera no mu ntangiriro za jenoside.”

Ubukana bwa jenoside kandi Gillet abubara ahereye nko ku bunganiraga abantu mu manza bakoze jenoside, nyamara bari basanzwe barengera uburenganzira bwa nuntu.

Ibyo ngo bigaragaza ko hari abantu bari beza baje guhinduka muri jenoside. Ku rundi ruhande ariko ngo hari abatarahindutse barino abategetsi batandukanye mbere ya 1994 babaga bamagana Habyarimana bagaragaza ko bakeneye impinduka ndetse bamwe barabizira.

Gushyingura abatutsi n’icyo byari bigamije

Abajijwe ku bijyanye nuko leta yariho yarageragezaga kwigaragaza neza, avuga ko iyo leta yakomeje kwerekana ko ibintu bimeze neza muri jenoside ari nayo mpamvu hatangwaga amakamyo yo kuvana imirambo aho yashoboraga kubonwa n’abanyamahanga.

Ati “Ygeragezaga guhisha ibyakorwaga. kuba umuryango mpuzamahanga waricecekeye nabyo byabaye nk’ibiyiha umwanya wo gukomeza kwikorera ibyo yashakaga.”.

Muri uwo mugambi ngo hakozwe icyiswe (Pacification) kigamije kugarura amahoro, Gillet asanga bwari uburyo bwo kuyobya uburari no kugirango babone abatutsi bari bakihishe mu bishanga n’ahandi bityo babice, ibyo kandi ngo bijyana n’imvugo zakoreshwaga “turi gukora, kurimburana igiti n’imizi, kutababarira n’imbeba ihaka” n’ayandi byose biri muri uwo murongo.

Abatari abambari bishwe rugikubita

Gillet avuga ko ihanurwa ry’indege ya Habyarimana arifata nk”igikorwa cyo guhirika ubutegetsi. Ati ” Navuga ko ari nka coup d’etat ni yo mpamvu Kavaruganda yahise yicwa kuko niwe wagombaga kurahiza uwagombaga gusimbura perezida wari umaze kwicwa, minisitiri w’intebe ni we wagombaga kujya kuri radio akavuga ijambo ry’ihumure uwo nawe bahise bamwica. icyakozwe rero ni ukwica abo bahutu bose bashoboraga kugaragara mu butegetsi, hari na minisitiri Ngurinzira na we washakishwaga cyane na we wishwe n’abandi.”

Jenoside yari kurangira ryari?

Tariki ya 4 Nyakanga 1994, ufatwa nk’umunsi jenoside yahagarikiweho mu Rwanda hose. Gusa mbere yaho;  muri jenoside hari itangazo rya Sindikubwabo wari perezida ryahamagariraga abantu gukomeza amarondo no gukomeza kurwanya umwanzi nubwo nko ku Gikongoro abatutsi benshi bari baramaze kwicwa.

Gillet avuga ko jenoside itari irangiye, akavuga uko yari kurangira. Ati “Nubwo bari barishwe, ntibivuze ko yari irangiye.

“Jenoside yari kurangira igihe nta mututsi numwe wari kuba akigaragara ni cyo jenoside bivuze kuko ni ukumaraho abantu bose nyine.”

Amakiriro adashoboka mu nzu z’Imana

Avuga ku byo guhuriza abatutsi ahantu hamwe. Asobanura ko mu myaka yo hambere muri za 1963 abatutsi bari baramenyereye guhungira ahantu hamwe cyane cyane kuri za kiliziya, icyo gihe kandi byarangiriraga aho ntabwo babakurikiranaga, iyo uburakari bwabaga bugabanutse basubiraga iwabo.

Gusa ngo cya cyizere cyongeye kugaragara nu 1994, ubwo hari abaketse ko byakongera bikamera nko muri ibyo bihe bya cyera ariko si ko byagenze.

Ati ” Abatutsi ndetse bagiye bashishikarizwa guhungira ahantu hamwe bibanza kwitwa ko ari ukubarinda ariko baza kwicwa byabaye hantu henshi twavuga nko mu Bugesera, nka Nyarubuye n’ahandi henshi.”

Ku bijyanye no ku Gikongoro, abatutsi bahungiye kuri za kiriziya hari abiciweyo, abandi bajyanwa i Murambi naho bicirwayo cyane tariki 21 Mata 1994, kuri iyo tariki hanishwe n’ab’i Kaduha.

Gillet abajijwe icyo bivuze kuba tariki 17 Mata 1994,  hari ubutumwa bwa minisitiri w’intebe Kambanda Jean bushimira perefe Bucyibaruta  kubera gushyira mu bikorwa gahunda ya guverinoma, avuga ko gahunda ya guverinoma icyo gihe izwi, yari ukwica nta kindi kintu yari ishyize imbere, nta kindi bari kumushimira cyakorwaga.

Icyo gihe abatutsi bari baratangiye kwicwa mu bice bitandukanye bya Gikongoro, hirya no hino harashyizwe za bariyeri zicirwagaho abatutsi, abandi barajyanwe kuri santere zitanduka nka Murambi, Cyanika, Tare , Kaduha n’ahandi baje kwicirwa.

 

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