Ibyo Martin Luther King yaharaniye muri Amerika byagezweho?

Ijambo “Mfite inzozi” rya Martin Luther King, asaba ko habaho uburinganire bw’amoko yose muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, ni rimwe mu magambo afatirwaho urugero cyane, yatanze ubutumwa bukomeye cyane ndetse yamamaye cyane yo muri ibi bihe.

Ariko uyu munsi, ibyo yaharaniraga biracyari ibyo gukorwaho; imbogamizi nshya mu gutora, by’umwihariko zigira ingaruka ku batora b’abirabura n’abacyene, ni ikimenyetso cyuko inzozi za Dr King zitaraba impamo (zitaragerwaho), nkuko bivugwa muri iyi nkuru y’umunyamakuru Pablo Uchoa wo mu Ishami ry’Isi rya BBC.

Martin Luther King Jr yari muntu ki?

Ku itariki ya 28 y’ukwezi kwa munani mu 1963, abantu bagera hafi ku 250,000 bateraniye ku nyubako y’urwibutso ya Lincoln Memorial i Washington DC ngo bumve umugabo avuga ijambo.

Izina rye ni Dr Martin Luther King Jr ndetse amagambo yavuze aracyafite agaciro ku isi na n’uyu munsi.

Dr King, umuhungu w’umukuru w’idini wo muri leta ya Georgia yo mu majyepfo y’Amerika, yagize inzozi zuko ubuzima bw’abana be bushobora kuzaba butandukanye n’uko ubwe bwagenze (bwari bumeze).

Ivanguramoko

Ivanguramoko, cyangwa gutandukanya abazungu n’abatari abazungu, ryari rigikurikizwa mu mategeko mu majyepfo y’Amerika.

Abirabura n’abazungu baratandukanywaga: babaga mu turere dutandukanye, bakarira muri za resitora zitandukanye, bakanywa amazi yo mu mariba atandukanye ndetse bakagenda bicaye mu bice bitandukanye mu modoka za bisi.

Muri icyo gihe, amategeko yagenaga byinshi mu bigize ubuzima bw’abirabura, agatuma bahembwa amafaranga macyeya ku kazi kabo, bakabaho mu buryo bubi cyane ndetse bagahabwa uburezi budafite ireme.

Amategeko yo gutora

By’umwihariko, amategeko avangura yatumaga bigorana ku batora b’abirabura kuba batora abadepite bashoboraga kuba bahindura ayo mategeko.

Ariko, niba wibwira ko inzozi za Dr King zitakijyanye n’igihe, bishobora kugusaba kongera kubitekerezaho.

Nkuko umuryango we bwite ubivuga, amezi macyeya ashize yibukije ko nyinshi mu nzozi za Dr King zitaraba impamo.

Muri za leta zigeze kubamo ivangura, inteko zishingamategeko ziyobowe n’abo mu ishyaka ry’abarepubulikani zatumye hajyaho amategeko impirimbanyi zivuga ko aheza ba nyamucye – n’abatora b’abirabura, by’umwihariko.

Aya arimo ibisabwa bikaze byo kugira ngo umuntu abone indangamuntu ndetse harimo no kubuza guha ibiribwa cyangwa amazi abantu bamara amasaha batonze umurongo bategereje gutora.

Joe Biden na Donald Trump

Inkubiri y’amategeko nk’aya yemejwe muri za leta 19, zirimo Florida, Texas na Arizona, nyuma yo gutorwa kwa Perezida Joe Biden mu 2020.

Uwamubanjirije, Donald Trump, avuga ko Biden yibye amatora, nubwo ikirego cyo mu nkiko cyananiwe kugaragaza ko habayeho uburiganya bwajyaga gutuma ibyavuye mu matora biba ibindi.

Rero, mu gihe Amerika yibuka Umunsi witiriwe Martin Luther King kuri iyi tariki ya 17 y’ukwezi kwa mbere mu 2022, abahungu n’abakobwa b’iyi ntangarugero barimo gusaba abantu kutibuka se gusa – ahubwo bagakurikiza amagambo ye ndetse bakagira icyo bakora mu kurinda uburenganzira bw’abirabura, babinyujije mu gushyigikira amategeko arinda ubwisanzure bwo gutora.

Bernice King n’ikigo Nonviolent Social Change

Umukobwa we Bernice King, unakuriye ikigo Martin Luther King Jr Center for Nonviolent Social Change, yagize ati: “Tuzaba twibuka ikiruhuko cya King, kandi turashishikariza mwebwe mwese gukomeza kwibuka kwanyu namwe”.

“Ariko, niba uburenganzira bwo gutora bukomeje kuba mu gihirahiro… rero twebwe, ni ukuvuga twebwe twese, tugomba gukoresha kwibuka gutandukanye kwacu twese ndetse n’imbuga zacu kuri uwo munsi nyirizina mu gukora icyo Dr King yagakoze.

“Papa wanjye yakavuze ndetse agakora mu buryo butuma iki gihugu kigera ku isezerano ryacyo rya demokarasi gishyira igitutu kuri sena yacu ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe [z’Amerika]… aho gufata ikiruhuko cya King, bakwiye kugikoresha, bemeza Itegeko ry’Uburenganzira bwo Gutora”.

Inkubiri y’uburenganzira bwa muntu

Ubu bushyamirane burimo gufatwa nk'”igihe cy’amahina” kuri demokarasi y’Amerika, nkuko bivugwa n’umuyobozi ukomeye mu bijyanye n’uburenganzira bwa muntu, Pasiteri Al Sharpton.

Ubwo yavugaga ijambo ku wa kabiri (ku itariki ya 11 y’uku kwezi kwa mbere) mu mujyi wa Atlanta, Martin Luther King yahoze atuyemo, Biden yavuze ko ikibazo cy’uburenganzira bwo gutora ari “urugamba rwa roho [ishingiro] y’Amerika”.

Akomoza ku wahoze ari Guverineri uvangura wa leta ya Alabama, Biden yarabajije ati: “Murashaka kuba ku ruhande rwa Martin Luther King cyangwa George Wallace?”

Rosa Parks

Igihe cy’ingenzi mu rugamba rwo gusoza ivangura cyabaye mu 1955, nyuma yuko Rosa Parks atawe muri yombi muri leta ya Alabama kubera kwanga guhaguruka ngo ahe umwanya we umugenzi w’umuzungu.

Katucha Bento, wigisha amasomo ajyanye n’amoko no kuva mu bukoloni kuri Kaminuza ya Edinburgh muri Scotland (Écosse), agira ati: “Abirabura nta na rimwe bigeze bemera ubucakara, kwicwa ndetse n’urundi rugomo rwose batabirwanyije”.

Rero, “igihe cy’ivangura nticyari kugira itandukaniro”, nkuko Madamu Bento yabibwiye BBC.

Kwanga kugenda muri bisi i Montgomery

Nyuma y’itabwa muri yombi rya Parks, abirabura b’aho bahisemo kwanga gukoresha serivisi ya bisi – bimara umwaka wose wa 1956. Iyo myigaragambyo yashyigikiwe mu gihugu hose. Ubwo Dr King yifatanyaga n’imyigaragambyo y’i Montgomery yo kwanga kugenda mu modoka ya bisi ndetse agafasha mu kuyobora icyo gikorwa, amagambo ye yongereye abantu imbaraga zo kurwanya ivangura.

Profeseri Bento agira ati: “Inkubiri y’uburenganzira bwa muntu yari igikorwa cyo guharanira uburenganzira mu mibereho mu myaka ya za 50 [1950] na za 60 [1960]”.

“Iyo nkubiri yari ifite intego y’urusobe, itegura imishinga n’ingamba zo guteza imbere uburezi, kugera ku biribwa, kubaka aho batuye nka bimwe mu bintu byerekeza ku kukwibohora n’ubwisanzure.

“Muri iyi ntego, ibikorwa byo guca ivangura byari bikubiye mu rugamba rugari rwo guha indi sura umuryango mugari w’Amerika”.

Ni iki Martin Luther King yakoze?

Amagambo ya Dr King yateraga abantu imbaraga zo kurwanya ivangura, ariko icyo abumva ko abazungu ari bo bari hejuru y’andi moko (white supremacists) babikoragaho cyarimo ubugome bwinshi: umuryango wa King wakiriye ubutumwa bw’abawuhamagara bawutera ubwoba ndetse inzu yawo iterwaho igisasu.

Yakomeje kurwana akoresheje intwaro yemeraga: imbaraga z’ijambo n’ubukangurambaga. Yemeraga kurwana mu buryo butarimo urugomo ndetse yangaga kugira icyo yakora agikoreshejwe n’urwango.

Profeseri Bento avuga ko urugamba rutarimo urugomo rwa Dr King “akenshi rusobanurwa ukutari ko rugahabwa igisobanuro cyoroheje cyuko rwari uburyo bwo guhebera urwaje [kutagira icyo abikoraho]”, ariko yemera ko rwari rurenze ibyo.

Agira ati: “Uburyo bwa Dr King bwari busobanukiwe cyane kutagira urugomo nk’uburyo bw’ubuzima yateganyirizaga Amerika: umuryango mugari utarimo ivanguramoko, urimo uburinganire n’ubwisanzure”.

Urugendo i Washington rugamije Akazi n’Ubwisanzure

Urugendo rw’i Washington rugamije Akazi n’Ubwisanzure rwo mu 1963, rwabaye igihe cy’ingenzi mu nkubiri y’uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Iteraniye ku zuba ryinshi ryo ku mpeshyi i Washington DC, imbaga y’abantu yararebaga ubwo Dr King yavugaga ku ngamba ze zitarimo urugomo, asaba ko habaho ubwuzuzanye bw’amoko.

Yavuze iryo jambo inyuma ye hari ikibumbano kinini cya Abraham Lincoln, Perezida w’Amerika watangaje ko abacakara bose bo muri Amerika babohotse mu 1863 no mu 1964, Dr King n’inkubiri y’uburenganzira bwa muntu bageze ku ntsinzi yanditse amateka.

Amategeko y’Uburenganzira bwa muntu (1964)

Itegeko ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu ryasoje ku mugaragaro ivangura ahahurira abantu benshi, ndetse rinaca ivangura mu kazi.

Ariko urugamba ntirwari rurangiye, kuko abanzi b’uburinganire bw’amoko bakomeje gukoresha uburiganya mu gukomeza ingamba zabo z’ivanguramoko.

Urugendo ruva i Selma rwerekeza i Montgomery

Amategeko mu majyepfo yakomeje guheza abatora b’abirabura, agatuma bigorana kurushaho kuri bo ko bakwiyandikisha ngo batore.

Mu 1965, Dr King yayoboye urugendo rwanditse amateka ruvuye mu mujyi wa Selma muri leta ya Alabama, rwerekeza mu murwa mukuru w’iyo leta ari wo Montgomery, mu rwego rwo kwamagana amategeko nk’ayo.

Ubwo abigaragambyaga bageraga mu muhanda munini wa kilometero 87, bakorewe urugomo rwiciwemo abantu rukozwe n’abategetsi baho hamwe n’imitwe y’ubwirinzi. Nyamara Dr King yakomeje gukurikiza ihame rye ry’imyigaragambyo idakoresha urugomo.

Martin Luther King yapfuye gute?

Yatawe muri yombi anafungwa inshuro 29. Ku itariki ya 4 y’ukwezi kwa kane mu 1968, yari ahagaze ku ibaraza ry’icyumba cye cya hoteli mu mujyi wa Memphis muri leta ya Tennessee, ubwo yaraswaga n’umuzungu w’umugabo.

Iyicwa rye nta kintu na kimwe ryakoze cyashoboraga kugabanya uruhare rwa Dr King mu mateka y’Amerika, cyangwa uruhare afite mu nkubiri zo muri iki gihe zo guharanira uburinganire bw’amoko.

Agaciro muri iki gihe

Inkubiri ziharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu zakurikije urugero rwa Dr King.

Profeseri Bento ati: “Umurage we uracyashinze imizi mu nkubiri zo muri iki gihe zo kurwanya ivanguramoko ziharanira uburenganzira mu mibereho”.

Bernice, wa mukobwa wa Dr King, avuga ko imyigaragambyo ikozwe mu mahoro yagaragaje akarengane atari gusa ku bijyanye n’uburenganzira bwo gutora, ahubwo no ku “bindi bibazo by’ibanze mu mibereho n’ubukungu biteje inkeke atari gusa kuri demokarasi yacu, ahubwo n’ubumuntu bwacu”.

Yongeraho ati: “Umushahara ubeshejeho nyira wo, icumbi rihendutse, ubuvuzi n’uburezi bufite ireme” ni intego z’ingenzi z’inkubiri y’uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Ni izihe mpamvu zatumye habaho ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo?

Amagambo ya Martin Luther King asubirwamo nk’amwe mu magambo nyungurabitekerezo cyane kandi ntangarugero cyane yo muri iki gihe.

Umuhate we mu kuvuganira uburinganire kandi ari mu byago bikomeye ku buzima bwe, ubonwa n’abanyamateka benshi nka kimwe mu birango bya demokarasi y’Amerika ndetse n’uburenganzira bwo kuvuga mu bwisanzure.

Ubuzima bw’abirabura bufite agaciro (Black Lives Matter, BLM)

Hagati aho, mu myaka ya vuba aha ishize, inkubiri ivuga ko ubuzima bw’abirabura (na bwo) bufite agaciro (Black Lives Matter, BLM) yafashije mu guha umurongo ibiganiro ku ivanguramoko ryashinze imizi mu nzego zitandukanye, hamwe n’ubugome ndengakamere bukorwa na polisi by’umwihariko.

Bernice King avuga ko ibyo akora “binagera hanze ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe [z’Amerika] bikabamo umurimo wo ku rwego rw’isi, ugera mu nzego zitandukanye kandi w’ingamba zihamye wo kurandura icyo papa wanjye yise ibibi bitatu ari byo ivanguramoko, gukunda ibintu mu buryo bukabije hamwe n’ubwiganze bw’igisirikare. Hakabaho umuryango ukunzwe cyane”.

Kuki Umunsi wa Martin Luther King (MLK) uri ku itariki ya 17 y’ukwezi kwa mbere mu 2022?

Buri mwaka, ubuhanga mu kuvuga bwa Martin Luther King hamwe n’imbaraga z'”inzozi” ze, byizihizwa muri Amerika ku wa mbere wegereye cyane isabukuru ye y’amavuko, itariki ya 15 y’ukwezi kwa mbere mu 1929.

Ariko n’iyubahirizwa ry’icyo kiruhuko ubwacyo rigaragaza uburyo iyi ngingo ishobora gucamo abantu ibice – n’uko ikomeje kumera gutyo.

Nubwo uwo munsi watanzweho igitekerezo hashize iminsi gusa nyuma y’urupfu rwa Dr King, byafashe imyaka kugira ngo inteko ishingamategeko y’Amerika irenge ibyo kwanga kwibuka intangarugero y’inkubiri y’uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Umunsi wa Martin Luther King wizihijwe bwa mbere mu 1986.

Byafashe indi myaka kugira ngo uwo munsi wizihizwe mu majyepfo y’Amerika – ikindi kimenyetso cyo gucikamo ibice kumaze igihe muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika.

Inkuru ya BBC

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