Ubukoloni: Menya iteshwagaciro ryakorewe umwiraburakazi Sarah azizwa ikibuno cye

Hashize imyaka irenga 200 Sarah Baartman apfuye nyuma y’ibikorwa “bibi byo kumumurika” i Burayi. Yashyinguwe iwabo muri Africa y’Epfo nyuma y’imyaka irenga 180 apfiriye i Burayi.

Sarah Baartman yapfuye tariki 29/12/1815 ariko ibikorwa byo kumurika umubiri we byarakomeje.

Ubwonko bwe, igikanka cy’amagufa n’ibice bigize igitsina cye byakomeje kumurikwa mu nzu ndangamurage y’i Paris kugeza mu 1974.

Ibyo byasigaye ku mubiri we amaherezo byasubijwe iwabo muri Africa y’Epfo mu 2002 ashyingurwa ku itariki ya cyenda ukwa munani muri uwo mwaka.

Uko biboneka, yajyanywe i Burayi ku mpamvu zitari ukuri n’umuganga w’Umwongereza, ahimbwa izina ryo kuri ‘stage/scène’ rya “Hottentot-Venus”, amurikwa mu bitaramo i Londres na Paris.

Rubanda babaga bararitswe ngo baze ari benshi bishyure kugira ngo barebe amabuno ye yari manini ‘bidasanzwe’.

Kugeza ubu aracyabonwa na benshi nk’ikimenyetso gikomeye cy’uburyo ubukoloni bwakoresheje mu nyungu zabwo abakolonijwe, irondaruhu n’andi mabi yakorewe abirabura.

Ubuzima bwa Sarah bwaranzwe n’ibibazo bikomeye. Bikekwa ko yavukiye muri Eastern Cape muri Africa y’Epfo mu 1789, nyina yapfuye afite imyaka ibiri, naho se – wari umushoferi, apfa ari umwangavu.

Yinjiye mu kazi ko mu ngo muri Cape Town, hari nyuma y’uko apfushije umwana yabyaranye n’umukoloni w’Umuholandi.

Mu kwezi kwa 10/1810, nubwo atari azi gusoma no kwandika, bivugwa ko Baartman yasinye amasezerano n’umuganga w’Umwongereza William Dunlop n’umushoramari Hendrik Cesars, uyu yanakoreraga mu rugo, yo kumujyana mu Bwongereza kumurikwa mu bitaramo by’imyidagaduro.

Impamvu yari uko Baartman, uzwi kandi nka Sara na Saartije, yari afite “steatopygia”, ituma umugore agira amabuno manini cyane kubera kwirundanya kw’ibinure.

Ibi byatumye rubanda rushika ubwo yerekanwaga mu nzu yitwa Piccadilly Circus y’i London amaze kuhagera.

Rachel Holmes, wanditse igitabo ‘The Hottentot Venus: The Life and Death of Saartjie Baartman’, agira ati: “Ugomba kwibuka ko icyo gihe, byari ibintu bigezweho cyane kandi byifuzwa ku bagore kuba bafite ikibuno kinini, rero abantu benshi bifuzaga ibyo we yari afite karemano, atarigeze abyongeresha.”

Kuri ‘scène/stage’ yambaraga agapantalo kamufashe cyane gafite ibara ry’umubiri, akambara n’amababa akanywa inkono y’itabi.

Abakire cyane bo barishyuraga akaza kubamurikirwa mu ngo zabo by’umwihariko, n’abashyitsi babo bakemererwa kumukorakora.

Igishushanyo cyo mu kinyejana cya 18 cyerekena Baartman n'amabuno manini hamwe n'undi muntu w'umuzungu

Ishusho imukomozaho yavuye muri British Museum

Abacuruzaga Baartman bamuhimbye “Hottentot Venus” na “Hottentot” – ubu ribonwa nko kunnyega – icyo gihe ryakoreshwaga mu Giholandi mu gusobanura ubwoko bwe bw’aba Khoikhoi n’aba San, bombi bagize abantu bitwa aba Khoisan.

Ubwami bw’Ubwongereza bwari bwaraciye ubucuruzi bw’abacakara mu 1807, ariko butaraciye ubucakara ubwabwo. Ndetse hari impirimbanyi z’uburenganzira zamaganye uko Baartman afatwa i London.

Abakoresha be barezwe kumukoresha ibyo we atemera, ariko ntibahamijwe icyaha, kuko Baartman ubwe yatanze ubuhamya abashinjura.

Christer Petley, umwalimu w’amateka muri Kaminuza ya Southampton, ati: “Ikibazo n’ubu kiriho ni – Baartman yaba yarabihatiwe, nk’uko abaharanira uburenganzira babivugaga, cyangwa yabihamije abishaka? Niba yarabihatiwe, agomba kuba yaratewe ubwoba cyane ngo ntavuge ukuri mu rukiko. Ntituzigera tubimenya.

“Iki kibazo ni urusobe kandi imibanire ya Baartman n’abamukoreshaga mu by’ukuri yarimo ubusumbane bukabije, nubwo hari amahitamo macye yari afite cyangwa yumvaga hari inyungu runaka akura mu kumurikwa.”

Rachel Holmes avuga ko muri ibyo bitaramo Baartman yagombaga no kubyina, kuvuza ibikoresho bimwe bya muzika, ariko ko n’abari batuye i Londres icyo gihe bashoboraga guhagarara bakamwitegereza kubera gusa ubwoko bwe.

Nyuma y’urwo rubanza, ibitaramo bya Baartman byatangiye kubura abantu no kunengwa mu murwa mukuru London, nuko atangira kuzengurutswa mu bitaramo ahandi mu Bwongereza no muri Ireland.

Mu 1814 Cesars yamujyanye i Paris. Aha yongeye kwamamara nanone, akanywera muri Café de Paris akanitabira ibirori by’abakomeye.

Cesars yasubiye muri Africa y’Epfo, asigira Baartman umuntu “umurika inyamaswa” ngo amukoreshe, uyu amuha izina ryo kuri ‘scène’ rya Reaux.

Aha yari asigaye anywa inzoga n’itabi byinshi, kandi Holmes avuga ko uyu wari usigaye amugenga “yanamucuruzaga nk’indaya”.

Baartman yemeye kwigwa no gushushanywa n’itsinda ry’abahanga n’abanyabugeni ariko yanga burundu ko bamureba yambaye ubusa buri buri imbere yabo, avuga ko byaba ari ukumutesha agaciro – no mu bitaramo bye ntiyari yarigeze abikora na rimwe.

Holmes avuga ko icyo gihe abahanga bari batangiye kwiga icyamenyekanye nka “siyansi y’ivanguramoko”.

Baartman yaje gupfa afite imyaka 26 azize indwara. Bivugwa ko yaba yarazize igituntu, imitezi cyangwa ubusinzi bukabije.

Umushakashatsi Georges Cuvier, wigeze gucezanya na Baartman muri kimwe mu birori bya Reaux, yakoze ikibumbano cy’umubiri wa Baartman ahereye ku murambo we yaguze mbere yo kuwubaga ngo awige.

Umurambo we yawukuyemo ubwonko anashahura imyanya y’igitsina cye abibika mu bikombe byabugenewe, abika n’igikanka cy’amagufa ye, byose bishyirwa mu imurika ry’inzu ndangamurage wa muntu i Paris.

Byagumye aho kugeza mu 1974, ibintu Holmes avuga ko “bikojeje isoni”.

Ambasaderi wa South Africa muri France Thuthukile Edy Skweyiya, ibumoso, na Roger-Gérard Schwartzenberg, Minisitiri w'ubushakashatsi w'Ubufaransa, bari iruhande rw'ikibumbano cyakozwe ku mubiri wa Baartman mu muhango wo kwemeza gusubiza ibisigazwa bya Baartman iwabo, mu 2002.
Abategetsi ba Africa y’Epfo n’u Bufaransa bifotoreje iruhande rw’ikibumbano cyakozwe ku mubiri wa Baartman i Paris, mbere y’uko ibisigazwa by’umubiri we bicyurwa iwabo

Natasha Gordon-Chipembere wagenzuye igitabo ‘Representation and Black Womanhood: The legacy of Sarah Baartman’, agira ati: “Abahanga muri siyansi basobanuye ingufu z’Abanyafurika, mu kuvuga ko aba Khoisan (‘the Hottentots’) ari ibisabantu bya vuba mu bantu, bisa n’ibyavutse ku ngunge (ubwoko bwazo bwitwa orangutan)”.

Nelson Mandela amaze gutorwa nka Perezida wa Africa y’Epfo mu 1994, yahise atangira gusaba ko ibisigaye ku mubiri wa Baartman n’ikibumbano cyakozwe ku murambo we bijyanwa iwabo. Amaherezo leta y’Ubufaransa yemeye ko ibi biba mu 2002.

Hari ku wa gatanu itariki ya cyenda ukwezi kwa munani 2002, ibisigaye ku mubiri we byashyinguwe i Hankey, Eastern Cape, hashize imyaka 192 Sara Baartman ahavuye akajya i Burayi.

Gushyingura Baartman
2002: Mu muhango wo kongera gushyingura ibisigazwa by’umubiri wa Baartman muri Africa y’Epfo

Ibitabo byinshi byanditswe ku buryo Baartman yafashwe n’igisobanuro cyabyo mu muco.

Gordon Chipembere yanditse ko “yabaye ishusho y’imvugo nyinshi zisobanura gukoreshwa nabi n’umubabaro abagore b’abirabura baciyemo.” Ariko ko hejuru y’ibyo byose Baartman yakomeje kuba “umugore utazwi utavugwa”.

Filimi Black Venus yo mu 2010 n’inkuru mbarankuru (documentary) ‘The Life and Times of Sara Baartman’ yo mu 1998, nabyo byerekanye inkuru ye no ku bantu bo hanze ya Africa y’Epfo batazi Baartman.

BBC

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