Menya ‘meditation’ umwe mu miti ikomeye y’ubwonko

Hashize imyaka n’imyaka abantu bagerageza uburyo bwose bwo kongerera ingufu ubwenge bwabo, intekerezo zabo, n’ubushobozi bwo gutekereza ibishya, bakoresheje ibizwi nka nootropiques, byitwa kandi “ibikangura kwibuka”.

Ubundi iyo unyweye café ni ubwoko bwa nootrpique uba ufashe: caféine irakangura kandi izwi cyane ku ngaruka igira ku kuba maso.

Ariko “imiti y’ubwenge” – itari buri gihe imiti yo muri za farumasi – igenda ikundwa kurushaho: ubu hari isoko rinini ry’imfashandyo zigurishwa (kenshi ziba zitaremejwe n’abahanga) kuko zifasha imitekerereze no kwibuka.

Abantu bamwe bo – mu buryo butemewe – bashaka uko babona imiti nk’iyo yanditswe n’abaganga, nka modafinil, mu kugerageza kongera ingufu z’imitekerereze mu kazi cyangwa mu masomo.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu 2017, bushingiye kuri Global Drug Survey, bwerekanye ko 30% by’Abanyamerika bari barafashe ubwoko runaka “bw’imiti y’ubwenge” mu mezi 12 yari ashize.

Inyongera ya 20% ugereranyije no mu 2015. Ubwo bushakashatsi bwerekana kandi ko atari bo bonyine: kuko kwiyongera mu gufata bene iyo miti kwari kwabonetse n’Iburayi hose.

Ariko se iyo miti irakora koko, ese ni izihe ngaruka zayo ?

“Imiti yose igira inkurikizi”

“Biratangaje uburyo tuzi bicye cyane ku bwonko bwacu, ariko icyo tuzi ni uko ubwonko ari system ifite ukuringanira kw’ingufu kwihagije, cyane mu mikorere yabwo. Ariko uko kuringanira ntikungana kuri twese, buri wese afite ukwe.”

Ibyo ni ibyemezwa na Hanneke den Ouden, umuhanga muri ‘neurosciences cognitives’ muri Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour yo muri kaminuza ya Radboud mu Buholandi.

Laboratoire ye yiga uko imikorere y’ubwonko bwacu n’uburyo mu kanya runaka igena uburyo dukora cyangwa dusubiza ku bintu.

Madamu Hanneke ati: “Modafinil iri mu bwoko bw’imiti ikangura ubwenge (psychostimulants). Izindi ngero ni nka méthylphénidate na l’amphétamine. Iyi miti yose muri rusange yongera ibyitwa dopamine mu mikorere y’ubwonko.”

Ishusho y'ikinini kirimo ubwonko imbere

Ifoto/GETTY IMAGES

Dopamine ubusanzwe ikorwa n’ubwonko maze bukayikoresha mu kugeza ubutumwa ku turemangingo runaka mu mubiri. Igira uruhare mu buryo twumva ibyishimo, ikagira n’uruhare rwihariye mu buryo umuntu abasha gutekereza no gutegura.

Igipimo kiri hejuru cya dopamine cyongera ubushobozi mu gice cy’ubwonko gihuzwa no kugira ‘concentration’ mu gutekereza.

Urugero; dopamine ifasha cyane abantu barwaye ADHD (indwara zo gucika intege mu gutekereza), ariko mu buryo butemewe imiti yongera dopamine ishobora no kugera ku bantu batayandikiwe n’abaganga.

Hanneke ati: “Mu nyigo zimwe ziheruka, twize uburyo ‘psychostimulants’ zitera gufata ibyemezo runaka mu rubyiruko. By’umwihariko, twize kuri méthylphénidate, umuti ushobora kuba uzwi cyane ku mazina ya Ritalin cyangwa Adderall.

“Ibyo twagezeho ni uko yongera ubushobozi bwo gukora ibikorwa by’inyongera. Icyo dutekereza ni uko ubwo bushobozi buba buvuye ku muhate w’imiti.”

Ariko Henneke aburira ko gufata iyi miti utayandikiwe na muganga ari akaga ku bwonko.

Ati: “Imiti yose igira inkurikizi zayo, niyo mpamvu ihabwa abayandikiwe na muganga.

Urugero, tuzi ko psychostimulants zongera umuvuduko w’umutima kandi ibyo bishobora gushyira mu kaga abantu bafite ibibazo by’umutima batari banazi ko bafite.”

Iyi miti kandi ntabwo ikora uko bikwiye ku bantu bose: bamwe irabafasha abandi ntigire icyo ibamarira.

Ukuringanira k'ubwonko

Ifoto/GETTY IMAGES

Henneke yongeraho ko nta bushakashatsi burakorwa ku ngaruka z’igihe kirekire zo gufata psychostimulants ku bantu basanganywe ubuzima bwiza.

Gusa ko ikizwi ari uko kongera dopamine mu bwonko bishobora gutera ibibazo mu gihe kiri imbere.

Ati: “Aha turavuga ku kuringanira kw’imikorere y’ubwonko bwacu, iyo uhungabanyije uko kuringanira wongera dopamine, ubwonko mu kwirengera bushaka kugarura bwa buringanire bugerageza kugabanya uburyo uwo muti ubukoraho.”

Ibyo bituma uko ugerageza kugira dopamine “isanzwe” ukoresheje imiti, ubwonko nabwo ari ko bugerageza kwirwanaho, maze umuntu akagera aho ahinduka imbata y’imiti iyongera.

Meditation mu mwanya w’imiti

Aho kongera ingufu z’ubwonko bwawe ukoresheje imiti, ukwiye kuzongera ukoresheje uburyo karemano, nka meditation n’umutimanama wose.

Ibyo rero byo bikora bite?

Laurie Santos, umwalimukazi wa psychologie (imitekerereze n’imyitwarire y’abantu) muri kaminuza ya Yale muri Amerika, avuga ko kimwe mu biranga ikiremwa muntu ari ugutekereza ku bintu byinshi kandi bidasanzwe.

Ati: “Ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko igikorwa cyoroheje cyo kwiyumva no kwiyumvira(meditation), kimaze iminota 10 buri munsi, gishobora kugabanya ibikorwa bya bimwe mu bice by’ubwonko biba biganisha ku kubunza imitima.

“Bityo igikorwa cya meditation gihindura rwose ishusho y’imikorere y’ubwonko bwawe.”

Ubundi kuki mu mutwe wacu hari ubwo bimera nabi?

Madamu Santos asobanura ko ubushakashatsi kuri ibi bwerekana ko iyo roho yawe iri kubunza imitima, bishobora kugutera kumererwa nabi.

“Igitangaje muri byose, ni uko nta na rimwe umuntu aba atekereza wese ngo yishimire ibyiza bitoya by’ubuzima afite nk’uko bikwiye, nko kuba warya ikintu kiryoshye cyangwa kuganira n’inshuti.”

Santos yongeraho ko “igikorwa cyo kubunza imitima n’intekerezo kigabanya rwose kumererwa neza kwacu”.

Meditation, umuti ku mibereho ya muntu?

Santos avuga ko ibikorwa nka meditation ari ingenzi cyane kuko “kimwe mu byiza byayo ari ugutoza roho yacu kunezwa n’ibihari no kubibamo neza kurusha uko bisanzwe.”

Ati: “Meditation ntabwo irangiza gusa ibitameze neza mu mutwe, ahubwo inakomeza amahuriro atandukanye y’ubwonko, ikabuhuza n’ibiriho ako kanya, ikaburinda kujagarara no kujarajara.”

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu 2008 bwerekanye ko abantu bakoze meditation mu gihe nibura cy’ibyumweru umunani bari babayeho mu byishimo kurusha abatayikora.

Meditation ntabwo ifasha gusa kuryoherwa n’ubuzima.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu 2013 na kaminuza ya California bwerekanye ko isomo rimwe rya meditation rifasha kuzamura umusaruro wo mu bizami byo mu ishuri.

Hari izindi nyungu nyinshi zayo, nk’uko bivugwa na Santos.

Ati: “Yongera ‘concentration’, ifasha kwibutsa no kwibuka, kandi igira ingaruka nziza ku mubiri: ishobora gutera kongera ubwirinzi bw’umubiri no kugabanuka mu gusaza kwawo”.

Niba hari ibyerekana ko meditation ifasha ku mikorere y’ubwonko, umunezero, ubwirinzi bw’umubiri, ndetse no kugera kuri ADN/DNA, byaba ari ugukabya kuvuga ko uyu ari umuti ku mibereho ya muntu?

Santos ati: “Twebwe, abahanga muri science, twibanda ku byerekana ko bifite izo nyungu byose, ariko meditation isa n’aho ari kimwe mu bifite izo nyungu zikomatanyije kurusha ibindi.”

BBC

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