Pandora Papers, inyandiko zatamaje abategetsi, uburyo bworoshye bwo kuzumva

Pandora Papers ni ‘documents’ hafi miliyoni 12 zari ibanga zageze hanze zihishura imitungo, guhunga imisoro, ndetse hamwe na hamwe iyezandonke ku bantu bakize n’abanyembaraga ku isi.

Abanyamakuru barenga 600 bo mu bihugu 117 bamaze amezi menshi bagenzura izo nyandiko zavuye ahantu 14, bashakamo inkuru zizatangazwa muri iki cyumweru.

Izo ‘documents’ zabonywe na International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) ikorera i Washington DC imaze igihe ikorana n’ibinyamakuru 140 kuri ubu bucukumbuzi bunini bwayo ku isi.

Ni ibiki byavumbuwe?

Pandora Papers zigizwe na ‘documents’ miliyoni 6.4, amafoto hafi miliyoni eshatu, emails zirenga miliyoni imwe n’inyandiko hafi ibihumbi magana atanu ziri muri excel.

Inkuru z’ingenzi zimaze gutangazwa kugeza ubu:

  • Umwami wa Jordanie yaguze imitungo muri Amerika na UK ya miliyoni £70 akoresheje kompanyi z’ibanga afite
  • Ubucuruzi n’imitungo bihishe bya Perezida wa Azerbaijan n’umuryango we muri UK by’agaciro karenga miliyoni £400
  • Minisitiri w’intebe wa Czech Republic utaratangaje kompanyi y’ishoramari mu mahanga yakoresheje agura villas ebyiri mu Bufaransa
  • Uko umuryango wa Perezida Uhuru Kenyatta umaze imyaka myinshi ukoresha rwihishwa kompanyi n’ibigo mu mahanga

Izo ‘documents’ zerekana uko abantu bakomeye ku isi – barimo abanyapolitiki barenga 330 bo mu bihugu 90 – bakoresha kompanyi bashinze mu mahanga mu guhisha imitungo yabo.

Madamazela Lakshmi Kumar wo mu kigo cyo muri Amerika Global Financial Integrity asobanura ko abo bantu “bashobora kunyereza amafaranga akagera hanze bakayahisha,” kenshi bifashishije kompanyi zitazwi neza bene zo.

Kuki kompanyi zo mu mahanga?

Pandora Papers zerekana urusobe rwa kompanyi zashinzwe mu bihugu, kenshi bene zo bahishweho amafaranga n’imitungo.

Urugero, umuntu ashobora kugira umutungo mu Bwongereza, ariko biciye ku itsinda rya kompanyi ziri mu bindi bihugu by’amahanga.

Ibyo bihugu by’amahanga aho:

  • byoroshye gushinga kompanyi
  • hari amategeko atuma bigorana kumenya ba nyirazo
  • imisoro ku bigo mvamahanga iri hasi cyangwa nta nayo

Aho hantu ni ibihugu cyangwa uturere bahimba ‘ijuru ry’imisoro’ cyangwa ‘ibanga mu mategeko’.

Nta rutonde rurangiye rw’ahantu nk’aho ruhari, ariko ahazwi cyane harimo impugu zo mu mahanga zigengwa n’Ubwongereza nk’ibirwa bya Cayman, British Virgin Islands, kimwe n’ibihugu nk’Ubusuwisi na Singapore.

Binyuranyije n’amategeko gukoresha ‘ijuru ry’imisoro’?

Ibyuho mu mategeko yaho bituma – mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko – abantu bahunga imisoro imwe bajyana amafaranga cyangwa bashinga kompanyi muri bene biriya bihugu, nubwo kenshi biboneka nk’ibidakwiye.

Hari izindi mpamvu zemewe n’amategeko zituma abantu bashyira amafaranga n’imitungo yabo mu bindi bihugu, nko kubirinda abagizi ba nabi cyangwa kuko leta zidakomeye kandi zidatanga icyizere.

Pandora Papers

Nubwo kugira imitungo mu mahanga ubwabyo bitabujijwe, gukoresha urunyurane rwa kompanyi z’ibanga mu gucuruza amafaranga n’imitungo ni uburyo nyabwo bwo guhisha ibyaha.

Abanyapolitiki bagiye basabwa kenshi gushyiraho amategeko atuma bitoroha guhunga imisoro, cyane cyane nyuma y’inyandiko nk’izi zasohotse mbere, Panama Papers.

Ariko Pandora Papers zirerekana ko “abantu bashinzwe guhagarika ibyo guhisha mu mahanga…ari bo nyine babikora. Bityo nta bushake buboneka bwo kubirangiza,” nk’uko bivugwa na Bwana Ryle.

Byoroshye gute guhisha imari mu mahanga?

Icyo uba ukeneye gusa ni ugushinga kompanyi muri kimwe mu bihugu bifite amategeko ahishira imitungo. Iyo kompanyi iba ifite izina gusa, nta bakozi cyangwa ibiro ikoreramo.

Gusa bisaba amafaranga. Ibigo byabizobereyemo birishyurwa ngo bishinge kandi bigenzure izo kompanyi ku bwawe. Ibyo bigo bitanga umwirondoro n’abayobora iyo kompanyi bacye bahembwa, bigatuma nta umenya nyiri iyo business w’ukuri.

Imari ihishwe mu mahanga ingana ite?

Biragoye kuvuga ngo ni angahe mu by’ukuri, ariko ibigereranyo bivuga ko ava nibura kuri tiriyari $5.6 kugera kuri tiriyari $32, nk’uko ICIJ ibivuga.

Ikigega cy’imari ku isi (FMI/IMF) cyavuze ko gukoresha biriya bihugu bita ‘ijuru ry’imisoro’ bituma za leta ku isi zihomba arenga miliyari $600 y’imisoro buri mwaka.

Madamazela Kumar avuga ko ibi bigira ingaruka kuri rubanda: “Guhisha amafaranga bifite ingaruka zitaziguye ku buzima bwawe… bigira ingaruka ku burezi buhabwa umwana wawe, kugera ku buvuzi, kugira icumbi.”

BBC

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