Menya byimbitse amateka y’Abanyamulenge (inyandiko mu byiciro)

Ku mbuga nkoranyamba no mu bitangazamakuru bitandukanye hakunze kumvikana ubutumwa bwo gutabara abanyamulenge bavuga ko bari gukorerwa ubwicanyi bamwe bita jenoside. Benshi bakunze kwibaza uri inyuma y’ubwo bwicanyi [bwamaganwa na benshi] n’impamvu yabwo. Mu nyandiko ndende izatambuka hano, harimo ibisubizo ku bibazo byose byibazwa, bibanzirizwa n’inkomoko y’aba baturage yakusanyijwe hifashishijwe inyandiko zitandukanye.

Abanyarwanda n’ubwo batari bazi kwandika, nk’uko bimeze ubu, amateka yabo yamenyekanye binyuze mu Bisigo  byabaye indiri y’amateka kuko byamenyesheje ibyabayeho ku ngoma z’Abami, haba mu ntambara zo kwagura igihugu, mu kurwanya ababisha bateye u Rwanda, abanyamahanga bigaruriye u Rwanda, ibikomangoma byarwaniye ingoma, ibyorezo byateye mu bantu no mu matungo, ibiza byaturutse ku mihindagurikire y’ikirere, Abami batanze mu buryo budasanzwe, abagomeye ingoma n’ibindi.

Mu mateka y’Ibisigo by’i Rwanda, byasimbuye ibyari bisanzweho byitwaga Ibinyeto, icyahimbwe mbere y’ibindi byose ni icyitwa «Umunsi ameza imiryango yose». Cyahimbwe n’umusizi-kazi NYIRARUMAGA amaze kuba Umugabekazi w’ingoboka w’Umwami Ruganzu Ndoli. Yagihimbiye gukemura ikibazo cyariho icyo gihe, cyo gushaka ko amateka y’u Rwanda atagumya kujya yibagirana nk’uko byari byaragenze mu bihe byamubanjirije. Uwo mugambi yawushyize mu bikorwa ahimba igisigo yise « impakanizi », agira ngo kizabe urugero rw’ubwo buhimbyi bushya. Icyo gisigo kimeze nk’urunigi. Amateka y’ingenzi y’ingoma ya buri Mwami akaba nk’isaro ry’urwo runigi. Isaro rya mbere rivuga amateka y’ingoma ya Ruganzu Bwimba. Bityo rero, uko ingoma zigenda zisimburana, Abasizi bakagenda bongera ho amateka y’ingoma yabo. Akaba isaro rishya ry’urwo runigi rw’amateka u Rwanda rwambaye. Ni yo mpamvu amateka y’u Rwanda tuzi ari aho ahera. Aya mbere y’icyo gihe yitwa ay’ingoma z’ “Abami b’Umushumi”, yaribagiranye burundu. Alexis KAGAME wacyanditse, avuga ko umusizi wa nyuma wari ukizi neza yari Nyirimigabo ya Marara ya Munana, waguye mu gitero cy’i Bunyabungo ku ngoma ya Rwabugili mu 1881. Cyandikishijwe n’umuhungu we Nyagatoma. Undi wari ukizi yari Karera ka Bamenya, wabaye Umutware w’ Intebe y’Abasizi w’imperuka, wo ku ngoma ya Yuhi V Musinga. Bose bahuriza ku kutamenya imikarago ivuga ku Bami ba kera.

Iki gisigo « Umunsi ameza imiryango yose », uwo muntu uvugwa ni NYAMUSUSA. Yabaye umugore wa Gihanga Ngomijana, wahanze ingoma nyiginya. Yabyaye abana batatu, baragwa ibihugu bitatu: Kanyarwanda aragwa u Rwanda, Kanyabugesera aragwa u Bugesera, Kanyendorwa aragwa i Ndorwa. Ikindi, Nyamususa, wari umukobwa wa Jeni rya Rurenge, yabaye uwa mbere mu Bagabe-kazi b’Abasinga 9 kuri 12 ba mbere b’ingoma nyiginya. Nguko uko Nyamususa « yamejeje imiryango yose ».

Ikindi Nyirarumaga yari agamije ni uguha ingoma nyiginya « umuzi » ufashe ku butaka bw’u Rwanda. Amateka ya Gihanga atangirira ku mugani w’ « Ibimanuka ». Nyamususa, Umubyara- bami b’Abanyiginya, kuba akomoka ku Basinga b’Abasangwa-butaka, byahaye ingoma nyiginya amateka atari imigani. Bikaba binumvikanye ko ibyo Bimanuka, mu mvugo itajimije, byamanutse mu gihugu cyo haruguru y’u Rwanda (Uganda y’ubu). Si na bo bambere baturutse ruguru iyo.

Hari n’ibindi bisigo nyabami byinshi byagiye bituma tumenya amateka arimo n’ay’Abanyabyinshi baje kwigomeka ku ngoma z’abami b’u Rwanda, bahungira mu kibaya cya Rusizi, nyuma yo kwishyira hamwe n’indi miryango bitwa Abanyamulenge, vuba aha ngaha, ku mpamvu za politiki, bakaba barimo kwicwa urw’agashinyaguro. Muri iyi nyandiko rero turareba amateka yabo, adufashe kumenya uwihishe inyuma y’ubwicanyi burimo kubakorerwa muri iyi minsi.

1.   AMATEKA Y’ABANYAMULENGE
  • Abanyarwanda ba mbere batuye mu kibaya cya Rusizi

 Amateka Avuga ko bitazwi neza igihe Abanyarwanda ba mbere baba baragereye mu kibaya cya Rusizi n’i Mulenge muri rusange. Gusa uruhererekane nyemvugo rugaragaza ko Abanyarwanda ba mbere bavuye mu Rwanda, bakambuka Rusizi bagiye gutura muri kiriya gice kirimo Mulenge, ari Abashambo bane ari bo Rugabika, abandi bitaga Serugabika, sekuruza w’Abagabika, na bene nyina aribo Gasinzira, sekuruza w’Abasinzira, Rugorora ukomokaho Abagorora na Mfizi wakomotseho Abapfizi.

Bijya gutangira, uwitwa RUGABIKA mwene Mushambo wa Kanyandorwa, wari utuye mu Kinyaga (Cyangugu), yagiye gushora inka ze ku mugezi wa Rusizi, atereye amaso hakurya abona ikibaya kirimo umukenke mwiza utoshye. Nk’undi mushumba wese, yagiye gutata icyo kibaya, asanga kidatuwe, ndetse yibwira ko agituye nta wazakimuburanya kuko nta nyiracyo cyari gifite.

Ntiyatindijemo, aho gucyura mu Kinyaga, inka yazikuriye muri icyo kibaya, kugira ngo zirishe ubwo bwatsi. Inka zarahageze zirashisha, zirushaho kubyara ku bwinshi kuko amazi yaho yari meza cyane kandi zabonaga n’ubwatsi buhagije. Yahise yimura umugore we n’abana be, bimukira muri icyo kibaya, baturayo burundu kuko nta nyiraho hari hafite. Urugo rwe rwa mbere yarwubatse ahitwa KUBWEGERA (Muri Territoire ya Uvira). Aha niho bene nyina, GASINZIRA, RUGORORA na MFIZI, baje kumusura, basanga ni heza. Niko gusubira mu Kinyaga ahitwa i Mushaka bajya kuzana abagore babo n’abana bose berekeza Kubwegera, baturayo batyo.

Uku niko imiryango ya mbere y’Abanyarwanda yageze kuri ubwo butaka, itura Kubwegera, ari naho ikatwa ry’imipaka ryayisanze, yisanga itakiri Abanyarwanda ahubwo yabaye Abanyekongo. N’ubwo umwaka bahaturiye utazwi neza ariko ni mbere y’1500 kuko Abanyabyinshi bamaze kwirukanwa mu Rwanda, basanzeyo Abagabika, Abasinzira, Abagorora n’Abapfizi, bamazeyo igihe kinini cyane, ndetse barabyariyeyo abuzukuru n’abuzukuruza ndetse n’ubuvivi.

1.2.      Uko Abanyabyinshi bageze i Mulenge

Izina “Abanyabyinshi” rikomoka kuri Byinshi. Byinshi yari mwene Bamara, igikomangoma cyavukaga kuri Yuhi II Gahima, wategetse u Rwanda kuva mu 1444 kugeza mu 1477.

Nyuma yo gutanga kwa Yuhi II Gahima, himitswe Ndahiro II Cyamatare, ariko Bamara bavaga inda imwe, n’umuhungu we Byinshi, banga kuyoboka, barigomeka. Bamara na Byinshi n’abari babashyigikiye bimitse umwami wabo witwaga Juru, banigarurira igice cy’iburasirazuba bwa Nyabarongo, mu gihe Ndahiro Cyamatare yasigaranye gusa igice cy’iburengerazuba. Juru yaje gupfa, bavuga ko azize kuba yarimye ingoma atarazwe na Yuhi II Gahima, noneho mu gice yategekaga bimika Bamara, bumva ko ubwo ari umuhungu wa Yuhi II Gahima, azima ingoma ikamuhira. Nawe ariko ntiyateye kabiri, nawe arapfa asimburwa n’umuhungu we Byinshi, ari nawe ukomokaho Abanyabyinshi.

Byinshi n’Abanyabyinshi be bashegeshe bikomeye ingoma ya Ndahiro Cyamatare, ndetse baca inyuma bajya kugambana n’Abanyabungo, maze batera u Rwanda, bararunyaga barutegeka imyaka 11 yose, bategekesha Abanyabyinshi kuko bari barafatanyije guhirika Ndahiro Cyamatare.

Gusa Ndahiro Cyamatare yari azi ko atazatsinda Abanyabyinshi bafatanyije n’Abanyabungo, maze yohereza umuhungu we Ruganzu Ndoli, kubunda (guhungira) kwa Nyirasenge Nyabunyana, wari warashatse i Karagwe k’Abahinda kwa Karemera Ndagara.

Mu gisigo «Aho ishokeye inshotsi ya Gitarama», umusizikazi Nyirarumaga atubwira ukuntu Umwami Ndahiro Cyamatare yapfiriye u Rwanda. Aho amariye kohereza umuhungu we Ndoli kwa Nyirasenge Nyabunyana i Karagwe, yavuye mu Nduga, ajya gutura ku gasozi kitwaga “Gitarama” ho mu Cyingogo. Kuri iyo Gitarama ni ho ingabo z’Abanyabungo n’iz’Abagara zamusanze zimuteye. Akomerekera ku rugamba rwahabereye, ahava avirirana amaraso. Ingabo za Nzira ya Muramira, umwami w’u Bugara, zimusongera ku gasozi ka Nyundo. Ni byo byiswe mu mateka y’u Rwanda “Urubi rw’i Nyundo”. “Inshotsi ya Gitarama” rero ni Ndahiro Cyamatare. Bikanavugwa ko umuhungu we Ndoli yaje kuhira inka ku iriba Se yari yazidahiriye ho. Izo nka ni imvugo y’ubusizi ivuga Abanyarwanda. Koko rero aho Ndoli abundukiye, ava i Karagwe, afatanyije n’uwo Nyirarumaga ubyivugira, u Rwanda barumaze igise cy’inyota yo guhorera u Rwanda no kuruhashyamwo amagomerane yose, bahereye kuri Byinshi n’abana be.

Uyu Ruganzu Ndoli amaze gukura yaje kwima ingoma mu Rwanda, abundutse (avuye mu buhungiro), ategeka u Rwanda kuva mu 1510 kugeza mu 1543.

Ruganzu Ndoli akigera mu Rwanda yahise, mbere na mbere, atera Rubingo w’Umugara, amutsinda ahitwa mu Nzoga za Rubingo, ho mu Buliza (ubu ni mu Murenge wa Jali, Akarere ka Gasabo). Nyuma yo kwica Rubingo no kwigarurira abagaragu be yakurikijeho gutera Byinshi bya Bamara n’abahungu be Rugayi, Rukundamata na Kamasa. Byinshi yahise afatwa yicwa na Ruganzu Ndoli, maze abari baramuyobotse uhereye ku bahungu be, abakwe, abuzukuru n’abandi, barahigwa, baricwa, abacitse ku icumu rya Ruganzu Ndoli, bigira inama yo guhunga.

Amateka avuga ko ahitwa i Bwishaza (i Rubengera) ariho urugamba rw’Abanyabyinshi na Ruganzu II Ndoli ariho rwabereye isibaniro. Bivugwa ko aha mu mashyamba yo mu Bwishaza, ariho Ruganzu II Ndoli yarasiwe umwambi w’ingobe mu jisho, n’umwuzukuru wa Byinshi bita Rukiramacumu (uyu ukomokaho inzu y’Abanyabyinshi b’Abakiramacumu). Abanyabyinshi barokotse iyi ntambara ya Ruganzu Ndoli bahise bahungira mu kibaya cya Rusizi, bahasanga ba Bashambo bari bahamaze imyaka myinshi, aribo Abagabika, Abagorora, Abasinzira n’Abapfizi. Urubyaro rwa Byinshi rwatujwe i KAKAMBA, maze rutangira kororoka ariko bitandukanye n’Abashambo bari bahasanze, bo banze kwivanga n’andi moko bahasanze, ahubwo bakajya bashakana hagati yabo kugira ngo bazagumane umwimere w’ubunyarwanda.

Kuko Abanyabyinshi bari ibikomangoma (Princes), birumvikana ko bahunganye amashyo menshi y’inka, ariyo soko y’ubukire bw’inka ku Banyabyinshi b’i Mulenge. Kubera ubushyuhe bw’ikibaya cya Rusizi, inka zabo zatangiye kwibasirwa n’ibyorezo by’amatungo. Bamwe bava i Kakamba, bimukira mu misozi miremire y’i Tombwe kubera ko ubukonje bwaho buberanye n’ubworozi.

Aha mu misozi y’i Tombwe niho baturutse bakwira ince zose za Fizi, Mwenga na Uvira, mu midugudu ya Remera, Rurambo, Tombwe, Swima, Uvira, Sange, Rurenge, Minembwe, Kamombo, Mujombo, na Mulenge baje kwitirirwa nyuma, bitwa Abanyamulenge, kubera impamvu za politiki, zigamije ahanini kwitandukanya n’u Rwanda kugira ngo bemerwe muri Congo.

1.3.      Abandi banyarwanda bahunze mu bihe bitandukanye

 Uretse Abanyabyinshi bahunze bamaze bamaze gutsindwa na Ruganzu Ndoli, hari n’abandi Banyarwanda bagiye bahunga mu bihe bitandukanye, bitewe n’impamvu zitandukanye.

Mu gisigo «Riratukuye ishyembe icumita ibindi bihugu», cyahimbwe n’Umwami Ruganzu II Ndoli, akurikije urugero rwa Nyirarumaga, anabifashwamo n’umusizi witwaga Rwozi, kuko we atari amenyereye ubusizi. Ruganzu ubwe atubwira ko agomba guhorera se Ndahiro Cyamatare, maze akica buri wese wagize uruhare mu rupfu rwa se, rwasize u Rwanda mu bucakara bw’Abanyabungo bwamaze imyaka 11 yose. Aba mbere yagombaga guheraho bari Abanyabyinshi bari baragiye ku ruhande rw’Abanyabungo, ariko yagombaga no kwica buri wese wagiye ku ruhande rw’Abanyabyinshi, n’aho yaba atari we. Kuko Abasinga bari barashyingiranye Abanyabyinshi, babigendeyemo ari benshi cyane.

Amateka akomeza avuga ko Ruganzu II Ndoli, yatanze abyaye uburiza. Umugore we yari Umwegakazi, babyarana umuhungu w’ikinege (fils unique) witwaga Semugeshi. Gusa uyu yimitswe akiri igitenga, ayoborerwa na nyina, ahabwa izina ry’ubwami rya Mutara I. Mutara I Semugeshi, niwe se w’igikomangoma Nzuki (sekuruza w’Abanyiginya b’Abaganzu). Mu ntambara yashyamiranyaga Abanyabyinshi na Ruganzu II Ndoli, hari amwe mu moko yari ashyigikiye bene Byinshi bya Bamara, hakaba na bamwe mu bari mu ngabo zarwanaga ku ruhande rw’ Abanyabyinshi, bose babigendeyemo, barahigwa baricwa, urugamba ruba urugamba.

Aba bose bari ku ruhande rw’Abanyabyinshi, mu itsindwa ryabo barajyanye. Nibo uzasanga bagize amwe mu mazu agize umuryango mugari w’Abanyamulenge. Muri aya moko yajyanye n’Abanyabyinshi, hari abagiye hafi ya bose. Hakaba nabo uzasanga baragiye i Mulenge ari nka bibiri cyangwa batatu, ariko umubare wabo mwinshi w’abagize ubwoko bwabo ugasanga barasigaye mu Rwanda, ari nabo bavuyemo abasuhukiye za: Bufumbira (Uganda), Bwishya/Rutshuru (Masisi) n’ahandi mu duce tw’uburasirazuba bwa Congo y’uyu munsi.

Ntabwo ari intambara y’Abanyabyinshi na Ruganzu II Ndoli gusa yatumye amwe moko y’i Rwanda

yerekeza i Mulenge, ahubwo hari n’izindi mpamvu zatumye habaho guhungirayo.

Mu gisigo «Ngisaba he? » cya Yuhi Mazimpaka, atubwira ko uyu mwami yari umusizi nyawe, kuko yahimbye ibisigo bine kandi nta wundi musizi ubimufashijemo, ndetse akatwereka ko yari afite ubusizi buvanze n’ibisa n’ubuhanuzi ndetse no kubonekerwa. Ikindi kizwi kuri Yuhi Mazimpaka ni uko yari afite ubwiza bw’agahebuzo. Ubwo bwiza bwaje kumukururira ibyago bikomeye kuko abuzukuruza b’Abanyabyinshi bari barasigaye mu Rwanda bahashatse inshuti zirimo Abacyaba, bavaga indi imwe kuko Abanyabyinshi ni Abanyiginya bakomoka kuri Gihanga na Nyamususa, ari nabo babyeyi ba Nyirarucyaba wakomotseho Abacyaba.

Abanyabyinshi rero bifashishije inshuti zabo maze bashyingira Yuhi Mazimpaka, Kiranga na Cyahinde, abakobwa bavaga inda imwe bo mu Bacyaba, bagira ngo bazamuce urwaho bamwice maze Abanyabyinshi basubirane ingoma banyazwe na Ruganzu Ndoli. N’ubwo ingoma Ruganzu yayisigiye Semugeshi na we akayisigira Nyamuheshera wayisigiye Gisanura nawe akayisigira Mazimpaka, Abanyabyinshi bari batarashirwa, kuko bashakaga kuyisubiza. Binavugwa ko kuba Yuhi Mazimpaka yararwaye amakaburo (ibisazi by’umwami), byatewe n’Abanyabyinshi. Kugira ngo rero Abanyabyinshi bisubize ingoma bagambanye n’Umwami w’u Bugesera, Nsoro III Nyabarega, wari warahungiye mu Rwanda, igihugu cye cyatewe n’ingabo z’u Burundi. Uyu Nyabarega yakiriwe na Mazimpaka maze amutuza ku Mugina wa Jenda na Kabugondo ho ku Mayaga, mu ntera nto uvuye ahi yari atuye ku Ijuru rya Kamonyi.

Umunsi umwe, Nsoro agambana n’abagore ba Mazimpaka bavaga inda imwe, ari bo Kiranga na Cyahinde, ngo bazamushakire ubwihisho aho azashobora kwitegereza ubwiza bw’umugabo wabo umunsi yaje iwabo. Byaratinze birakunda. Nyuma, aho bimenyekaniye, ba bagore b’umwami bombi barishwe. Mazimpaka nibwo abahimbiye igisigo cy’ “ubuse”, kivugira ukuri mu bitwenge!

Kuko aba bagore bagambanye bari abo mu bwoko bw’Abacyaba. Mazimpaka yahise aca iteka ko “nta Mwami, nta n’umuntu umukomokaho, bazasaba umugeni mu bwoko bw’Abacyaba. Mazimpaka yaribwiye ati «ubu se kandi “Nzasaba he abageni?” » Ni nk’aho yagize ati «ko twisubiraniyemo se? » Mazimpaka kandi yahise ahimba igisigo kitwa « Singikunda ukundi». Muri iki gisigo arakarira abagore cyane maze akagira ati « Sinategera umugore ijosi, ijoma rya Nyirabicuba, naragendeje menya ibintu ibi. Umugore ni intati, umukamira impenda, impinduka yaza akaguta mu nganigani. Umugore muterana agukinze umutima, wamara guteba akagutambuka, agashakira imbere iyoooo…»

Mu Bami b’u Rwanda bose, Yuhi III Mazimpaka ni we wenyine warwaye indwara y’ « ibisazi » byeruye. Ni na yo yamwishe. Yahanutse ku nzu ye y’ « umuturirwa », yijugunya ku rutare rwari munsi yayo, arwita ikizenga cy’amazi (piscine). Mbere y’uko bigera aho, i Bwami bari bagerageje kubihishahisha. Binaniranye Abiru bashyiraho umuhungu we w’imfura RWAKA ngo abe “Umwami w’ingoboka”. Nyina Rukoni, yari Umunyiginya, bizira ko yaba Umugabekazi. Rwaka ahabwa n’izina ry’ubwami rya Karemera, ry’i Karagwe, ritabagaho mu mazina y’Abami b’i Rwanda. Aho Mazimpaka apfiriye, Karemera Rwaka yahaye umwanya nyirawo Cyilima Rujugira, ariko yima bamaze kwica umugore we yakundaga cyane, Kalira, bamunywesheje, agwa ku Kivumu cya Mpushi na Nyarenga, i Gitarama (Ubu ni mu Karere ka Muhanga, Umurenge wa Cyeza). Ibi byatumye avuga ngo « Nta byera ngo de ! Ubonye nima Kalinga ndi kumwe na Kalira ? »

Icyo gihe ababigizemo uruhare bose baba Abanyabyinshi cyangwa Abacyaba barishwe, abahonotse bahungira i Mulenge basangayo Abanyabyinshi bari bahamaze imyaka irenga 150.

Ku ngoma ya Rujugira kandi hagiye abandi Banyabyinshi bazize gushuka Muhabura kwima intwaro Umwami kugira ngo azatsindwe n’Abarundi, Abanyabyinshi basubirane ingoma.

Mu gisigo « Ibyuma bitsindira Abami » cya Kalimunda, yageneye umucuzi witwaga Muhabura mwene Bwayi, wo mu Basinga b’Abanukamishyo, wari utuye mu Marangara. Uyu Bwayi niwe waje kwitirirwa agasozi yari atuyeho kitwa « Kabgayi » tuzi ubu.

Umusizi Kalimunda rero henga azaze gucurisha amacumu n’imyambi byo gutabara ku rugamba rwari rukaze icyo gihe. Umucuzi agumya kwirozonga ntiyatanga ibyuma, ashutswe n’Abanyabyinshi, bagira ngo Umwami abure intwaro atsindwe n’Abarundi.

Kalimunda yahise amurega i Bwami. Umucuzi yumvise ko byamukomeranye, ahimba amayeri yo kwiregura ko yari ahugiye gucura “imishyo” yo kuragurira abatabazi. Yiga no kwiregura mu bisigo. Henga rero urubanza ruzabure gica. Ruva ku makosa y’umuntu, ruhinduka impaka z’ikirusha ikindi gutsindira igihugu hagati y’ “indagu” yerekana intsinzi n’ “intwaro” zirwana ku rugamba. Ubwo hari ku ngoma ya Rujugira nyamara intambara ikaze hagati y’u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Rujugira yaje guperereza amenya ko Muhabura yashutswe n’Abanyabyinshi, batari bishimiye ingoma ye, maze arabahiga arabica, abahonotse basanga bene wabo i Mulenge.

Kalimunda yaje gupfa asimburwa n’umuhungu we Musare. Uyu Musare yabayeho ku ngoma z’Abami bane Rujugira, Ndabarasa, Sentabyo na Gahindiro. Kuri buri mwami yahimbaga ibisigo bimwibutsa ubugambanyi bw’Abanyabyinshi n’icyo akwiye gukora ngo abirinde. Mu bisigo bya Musare twavugamo «Umurambi w’ingoma», aho yerekanaga uko ingoma z’Abami zaramba birinze ubugambanyi bw’Abanyabyinshi, «Umugore mukuru», aho yavugaga imihigo y’imirwa mikuru y’ibihugu u Rwanda rwagiye rwigarurira, Abanyabyinshi ntibabyishimire, akanasingiza ubutwari bw’ “Abacengeli” batanze ubuzima bwabo kugira ngo amaraso yabo amenekere ku butaka bw’amahanga, u Rwanda ruboneremo umutsindo, akibanda kuri Gihana mwene Cyilima Rujugira, watabariye u Rwanda mu ntambara rwarwanaga n’u Burundi. Aboneraho no kugaya Kanywabahizi, umuhungu wa Gihana wanze gutabarira u Rwanda mu Gisaka, mu gisigo cyitwa «Umunyiginya mutindi».

Uretse Abanyabyinshi, hari n’abandi Banyarwanda bagiye i Mulenge mu gihe cy’inzara yiswe Rukungugu (ku ngoma ya YUHI IV Gahindiro n’umugabekazi Nyirayuhi IV Nyiratunga) ahayinga umwaka w’1750. Iyi nzara yiswe “inzara y’ibijumba” cyangwa “inzara y’intofanyi”. Intofanyi ni ko bitaga ibirayi muri icyo gihe.

Nyuma ya Rukungugu, hari abandi Banyarwanda abagiye i Mulenge na none bahunze intambara yo ku Rucunshu mu 1896, ubwo Musinga, abifashijwemo na nyina Kanjongera na ba Nyirarume, yakoreye Coup d’Etat mwene se Rutarindwa. Ahanini abagiye bahunze Rucunshu ni Abega b’Abahenda kubera ko bagize ibihe bikomeye mu gihe cy’ ihora rya Kanjogera. Ahanini Abahenda baziraga uwitwa Rwamanywa rwa Mirimo (wakomokaga mu Budaha, i Nyange). Uyu Rwamanywa, yari inkoramutima ya Muhigirwa (umuvandimwe wa Rutarindwa wiciwe Ku Rucunshu). Rwamanywa niwe watumwe na Muhigirwa kuri Baryinyonza mu Buyaga (Byumba) kugira ngo bahurize hamwe batere i Bwami. Rwamanywa, rero kuri Kanjogera yafatwaga nk’umwanzi ukomeye. Ibi nibyo byatumye habaho guhigwa ku miryango y’Abahenda kubera mwene wabo Rwamanywa rwa Mirimo wari inshuti ya Muhigirwa wa Rwabugiri warwanyije ingoma ya Kanjogera ahereye i Ngeri (Nyaruguru).

Abega b’Abahenda nibwo batangiye guhunga, bamwe berekeza i Mulenge, abandi nabo berekeza i Murera (Ruhengeri), ari nabo bamwe bavuyemo abagiye i Gishali hagati y’1920-1955 mu cyiswe MIB (Migration des Banyarwanda).

Nyuma y’itsindwa ry’igikomangoma Muhigirwa n’abambari be, umugabekazi Kanjogera, mwene Nyiramashyongoshyo (umushambokazi) na Rwagakara rwa Gaga afatanyije na basaza be n’abisengeneza be, barimo Kabare, Ruhinankiko, Mbanzabigwi, Cyigenza, Ruhinajoro, Nyirinkwaya, Rwabutogo n’abandi batangiye gushakikisha abari bashyigikiye Muhigirwa, ari nako bicwa. Abahonotse ubwo bwicanyi bwiswe ihora ryo mu myaka y’1898-1910 bagiye bahungira i Mulenge nabo.

Ku ngoma ya Kigeli IV Rwabugili, hari umubare munini w’Aborozi bahunze imisoro yacibwaga ku nka, mu rwego rwo kuzahura ubukungu no kubaka ubwami bwe. Icyo gihe, abaturage benshi mu Rwanda biganjemo aborozi, babaye nk’abahunga imisoro bacibwaga ku matungo yabo, bahungishiriza amashyo yabo muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo.

Aya moko yose yagiye ahungira i Mulenge yahasanze abakomoka kuri Rugabika (Serugabika) na bene nyina, ndetse n’Abanyabyinshi bakomoka kuri Byinshi bya Bamara wa Yuhi Gahima. Icyo bahuriyeho ni uko abahungiye muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo banze kwivanga n’andi moko bahasanze ari yo y’Abafurero, Abanande, Ababembe, Abanyentu, Abashi n’abandi.

Uku kutivanga kw’Abaje kwitwa Abanyamulenge, byatumye byabyara ibibyarirane (les consanguins), binatuma haba intambara zitandukanye zagendaga zibahuza n’andi moko bapfa inzuri, ubutaka cyangwa inka zabaga zigiye kunyagwa. Izi ntambara zakajije umurego mu 1800 kugeza mu 1802.

Mu gutangiza ubukoloni bw’Afurika, habaye inama y’i Berlin, maze ikata imipaka y’ibihugu. Abanyarwanda bamwe bahise bisanga mu bihugu by’amahanga, ariko cyane cyane mu bice biherereye mu burasirazuba bwa Congo. Inama y’i Berlin yari ihuje abanyaburayi bagamije gucamo ibice no kwigabanya Afurika. Iyi nama yatangiye ku wa 15 Ugushyingo 1884 irangira ku wa 26 Gashyantare 1885. Itumijwe na Bismarck wayoboraga Ubudage, iyi nama yahuje ibihugu by’Ubudage, Otrishiya-Hongriya, Ububiligi, Danemarike, Hispaniya, Ubufaransa, Ubwongereza, Ubutaliyani, Ubuholandi, Portugali, Uburusiya, Suedi, Norveji na Turkiya. Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika nazo zarayitabiriye nk’indorerezi. Nyuma y’iyi nama niho imipaka yashyizweho yatumye ba Banyarwanda bagiye bahunga u Rwanda ku mpamvu zitandukanye, bisanga babaye Abanyekongo, maze Abakomoka kuri Rugabika na bene nyina, Abanyabyinshi n’andi moko yagiye ahunga mu bihe bitandukanye, arema igice kinini muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo, cyanze kwivanga n’abandi baturage, barema igice cyaje kwitwa Abanyamulenge, bagira n’ururimi rwabo rwitwa “Ikinyamulenge” ruhuje Ikinyarwanda, Ikirundi n’Ikinyankole.

Aba Banyamulenge rero bakomeje kubaho bahanganye n’andi moko yo muri Congo, ariko akabita “Abanyarwanda”, kandi kwari ukuri mbere y’inama ya Berlin ntabwo Congo cyangwa u Rwanda uko tubizi uku ariko byari bimeze.

Inama ya Bruxelles yaje noneho itsindagira ibyavuye mu nama y’i Berlin. Iyi nama yabaye mu 1910, igamije gushyiraho imipaka hagati y’u Rwanda, Congo na Uganda, yari ihuje ibihangange byategekaga ibi bihugu ari byo Ubudage, Ubwongereza n’Ububiligi. Iyi nama yashyizeho imipaka uko tuyizi uyu munsi. U Rwanda rutakaza intara ya Bufumbira yagiye ku Bugande, Bwishya,

Gishali n’ikirwa cy’Ijwi byashyizwe kuri Congo Mbiligi. Alexis Kagame yerekanye ikarita igaragaza uko u Rwanda rwanganaga ku ngoma ya Kigeli II Nyamuheshera (1576-1609), agaragaza ko u Rwanda rwatakaje ubuso burenga 1/3 cy’uko rwanganaga icyo gihe.

Ingaruka zavuyemo ni uko Abanyarwanda bisanze ari abanyamahanga, batabigizemo uruhare. Ni yo mvano y’amakimbirane yose aho mu burasizuba bwa Congo, ahatuye Abanyekongo bavuga ikinyarwanda, bahora bitwa abanyamahanga mu gihugu cyabo kandi nta ruhare babigizemo.

Biracyaza.……

Inyandiko yakusanyijwe na Léon Patrick Gatete/Kamonyi

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