Ingamiya: Coronavirus zimwe zifite yica kurusha Covid-19, iteye ubwoba abahanga

Bitekerezwa ko Covid-19 yavuye mu nyamaswa ikagera ku bantu. Ubu abahanga baraburira ko hari ibyago ko hari ikindi cyorezo kizabigenza gityo.

75% by’indwara nshya ziri kwibasira abantu muri ibi bihe ziva ku nyamaswa nk’uko bivugwa n’ihuriro ry’abahanga ku isi mu ndwara zandura baterwa inkunga na leta ya USA.

Aba bahanga bamaze kubona no kumenya indwara nshya 1,200 zo mu nyamaswa. Gusa batekereza ko hari izindi 700,000 zo mu nyamaswa bataramenya ibyazo.

Inyamaswa imwe yororwa iri guha akazi aba bahanga – no kubatera ubwoba – ni ingamiya.

Izi nyamaswa z’inyamabere z’ijosi rirerire n’ipfupfu rinini zororwa na miliyoni z’abaturage muri Africa abajyaruguru ashyira uburasirazuba, Aziya n’uburasirazuba bwo hagati.

Ingamiya aho si itungo risanzwe, niryo tungo ritangwa mu bukwe, niryo ribaha inyama n’amata, nibwo butunzi.

 

Kwegera ingamiya ngo uzifate ibipimo bisaba kwigengesera
Kwegera ingamiya ngo uzifate ibipimo bisaba kwigengesera,(CREDIT: JACOB KUSHNER)

Abazorora bavuga ko ari itungo ry’amahoro. Ariko iyo uyegereye ufite urushinge ngo uyifate amaraso cyangwa udukoresho bashinga mu mazuru ngo bafate igipimo, nibwo ubona uburakari bwayo.

“Ishobora kugutikura umugeri. Ishobora kugucira. Ishobora no kukunyarira”, ni ibivugwa na Millicent Minayo umukozi wa Washington State University ucungira hafi uko ibintu byifashe.

Minayo amaze imyaka ibiri iminsi ye y’akazi ayimara asuzuma ingamiya, abaziragira na benezo mu ntara ya Marsabit mu majyaruguru ashyira uburasirazuba bwa Kenya. Ati: “Umuntu wese uzigeraho ashobora kwandura”.

Millicent Minayo na bagenzi be bambara ibyabugenewe bibakingira iyo bagiye gupima ingamiya n'abantu
Millicent Minayo na bagenzi be bambara ibyabugenewe bibakingira iyo bagiye gupima ingamiya n’abantu,(CREDIT: JACOB KUSHNER)
 

Iyo ‘ni indwara’ yitwa Middle East respiratory syndrome (Mers), ubwoko bushya bwa coronavirus bimaze kuboneka ko bufite ubukana bwo kwica inshuro zirenga 10 kurusha Covid-19.

Iyi ndwara yabonetse muri Arabia Saoudite mu 2012.

Kugeza mu 2016, OMS/WHO yari imaze kubona ibipimo byemeza ko abantu “1,761 banduye Mers-CoV, harimo nibura 629 yishe”.

Nyuma muri uwo mwaka, iyi ndwara yakwiriye mu bitaro bituma abantu baburirwa ko atari aborozi b’ingamiya gusa bashobora kuyirwara, ahubwo umuntu uwo ari we wese.

Nubwo ingamiya arizo ziba ziyifite, iyi Mers iba ikibazo ku bantu ari bo babiteye.

Uko ibikorwa bya muntu bikomeza gutera ihindagurika ry’ikirere n’amapfa atinda kandi akaze, niko aborozi bagenda bava ku nka n’andi matungo bajya ku ngamiya kuko ari zo zishobora kumara ibyumweru nta mazi.

Ikivamo ni uko abantu benshi barushaho kwegerana n’ingamiya – ibintu byorohera cyane ikwirakwira ry’iyi ndwara.

Minayo ati: “Twazanye ubu bushakashatsi muri Kenya kuko hari umubare munini w’ingamiya, cyane cyane muri Marsabit.” Avuga ko we na bagenzi be mu 2019 babonye iyi virusi mu ngamiya 14.

Ubu baragerageza gusuzuma iyi virusi mu bantu b’aho, bashaka uko barwanya hakiri kare ikwirakwira ryayo itaraba icyorezo nka Covid-19.

Igihugu cy’ingamiya

Muri Kenya habarurwa ingamiya miliyoni eshatu, ni hafi 10% by’ingamiya zose ziri mu isi, Kenya iza inyuma gusa ya Sudan na Somalia mu kugira nyinshi.

Leta ya Kenya ivuga ko Marsabit haba ingamiya nibura 224,000 muri izo. Izo ziri hafi kungana n’abaturage bahatuye. Marsabit niyo ntara nini ku butaka muri Kenya, ariko niyo ntoya mu mubare w’abaturage, ifite 1% gusa by’abatuye Kenya, gusa 80% babaho mu bukene.

Ubworozi nibwo bugize 85% by’ubukungu bwa Marsabit, nubwo hariyo n’inka ariko ingamiya niyo shingiro ry’ubukungu hano, kuko nizo zihanganira ubutayu, amapfa maremare n’ubushyuhe buba hano.

Gusa uko ingamiya ziyongera hano niko ibyago by’indwara zizivaho byiyongera, nk’uko bivugwa na Dawn Zimmerman umuhanga mu ndwara z’inyamaswa w’ikigo Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute ikora ibikorwa byo kugenzura izi ndwara.

Ati: “Indwara ziri aha hose. Zihawe icyuho ni uguhita zinjira mu bantu.”

Virusi iri muri zimwe muri izi ngamiya yamaze kuhagera. Bumwe mu bushakashatsi buheruka bwerekanye ko aborozi b’ingamiya by’umwihariko bashobora kurwara Mers.

Gushukashuka ingamiya, bihera ku murizo

Buri gitondo iyo Millicent Minayo na Mugenzi we Boru Dub Wato bagiye gupima Mers mu ngamiya, baba birinze mu buryo aborozi bazo bo badakora.

Amataratara yabugenewe, uturindantoki, udupfukamunwa, inkweto n’imyenda yabyo, baba bameze nk’abantu badasanzwe muri iki cyaro.

Basaba aborozi kubafatira ingamiya esheshatu ngo bazipime. Izi ni intoya, buri imwe ntiramara imyaka ibiri, ariko ziba ari ndende cyane, kuzipima ni ihurizo.

Kubasha gupima ingamiya bisaba amayeri atandukanye n'abantu barenze umwe
Kubasha gupima ingamiya bisaba amayeri atandukanye n’abantu barenze umwe,(CREDIT: JACOB KUSHNER)
 

Dub Wato, wazikuriyemo kuko avuga hano muri Marsabit mu bwoko bw’aba Gabra ati: “Ni inyamaswa nini cyane. Ugomba kuba ufite imbaraga ngo uzifate. Nubwo nazo zidahagije, ahubwo bisaba amayeri.”

Amayeri ya mbere ni uguhera ku murizo uyagaza. Iyo ubashije kuwufata ntabwo ishobora kugira aho ijya. Dub Wato ati: “Undi muntu ajya ku gutwi, undi agafata umunwa.”

Ingamiya iratsikimba igasakuza inagerageza gutera umugeri cyangwa amavi abayifashe. Dub Wato ahita ayifata ibipimo mu zuru no mu kibuno, ubundi akayitera urushinge munsi y’amajigo agafata amaraso.

Iyo ingamiya zimaze gupimwa, abantu nibo bakurikiraho. Umwe ku wundi, Minayo agenda abafata ibipimo mu mazuru no mu muhogo. Mu gihe bariho baganira batebya, baseka. Bagakomereza ahandi bityo bito…

Akazi kabo k’umunsi iyo karangiye, Minayo na Dub Wato bavanamo ya myenda ibakingira, bakajyana bya bipimo mu mujyi kuri moto. Aha bahasanga ibyuma bishyira ibipimo mu bukonje nibura bwa -80C maze bikoherezwa ku rugendo rurerure i Nairobi aho laboratoire zibipimamo Mers.

Na mbere y’uko Covid-19 iza, indwara 13 z’inyamaswa zirimo igituntu, hepatitis E n’ibicurane by’ibiguruka, zatezaga indwara ku bantu miliyari n’impfu zigera kuri miliyoni 2.2 buri mwaka ku isi.

Mers igeze mu bantu yakwihuta cyane gukwirakwira.

Muri Arabia Saoudite mu kwezi kwa 12/2019 n’ukwa mbere 2020 bahabonye abantu 15 bayanduye, batatu bari abakozi bo kwa muganga bandujwe n’abarwayi.

“Kuba izi virus zo mu bwoko bwa coronavirus zishobora kwihindurizamo ubundi bwoko bivuze ko ntawamenya igishobora kuba cyazanwa n’iyi yo mu ngamiya” – Zimmerman.

Niyo mpamvu ari ingenzi cyane ko hakorwa ubushakashatsi ku ndwara z’inyamaswa zishobora kuzateza ibyorezo mu gihe kiri imbere, nk’uko Zimmerman abivuga.

Barazinywa, barazirya, bararana nazo

Buri joro iyo aborozi baraye kure y’ingo zabo baragiye kugisha (gushaka ahandi hari ubwatsi zirisha) bararana n’izi ngamiya kugira ngo zibahe agashyuhe mu mbeho y’ijoro. Bwacya bakazikama bakanywa amata mabisi – rimwe na rimwe ayo mata yonyine niyo abatunga iminsi cyangwa ibyumweru.

Iyo ingamiya ipfiriye mu butayu, aborozi hari ubwo barya inyama zayo mbisi, kuko ntaho bakura inkwi zo kuziteka.

Iyi migirire yose iteye akaga ku kuba yakwirakwiza Mers.

Umwe mu barozi ari gupimwa iyi virus ya Mers muri Marsabit
Umwe mu barozi ari gupimwa iyi virus ya Mers muri Marsabit (CREDIT: JACOB KUSHNER)

Dub Wato ati: “Tubashishikariza kwirinda. Kwirinda kwegerana nazo, aho biri ngombwa bakambara udupfukamunwa. Baba bazikozeho bagakaraba intoki, nk’uko turi kubikora twirinda Covid-19.”

Ariko Lemilayon Lekonkoi umworozi wo mu bwoko bw’aba Samburu ati: “Mbere y’uko muza kutubwira ibyo ntitwari tuzi ko amata mabisi ashobora kudutera indwara. Ariko ubu twarabimenye, turayateka.”

Gusa ingamiya ziteje akaga kurusha izindi nyamaswa abantu borora.

Inka zikamwa zikunze kubagwa zimaze imyaka igera kuri itandatu, bivuze ko iyanduye nk’indwara yitwa Brucellosis iba ifite igihe gito cyo kugeza iyo bacteria mu bantu.

Ihene n’intama zo igihe cyazo kenshi ni imyaka ibiri. Ariko ingamiya yanduye Mers cyangwa izindi ndwara ishobora kubaho iteje akaga ko kwanduza abantu mu myaka hagati ya 15 na 20 imara ku isi.

Lekonkoi azi Mers ku izina bayihimbye aho rya – Homa ya Ngamia (ibicurane by’ingamiya) – kubera gusa ko Minayo na Dub Wato bababuriye.

Yibaza ko we amaze kubona ingamiya zifite iyi ndwara aho hafi, ati: “Turazibona zikorora – kimwe n’abantu. Ariko nyine twibanira nazo, ntabwo twazihunga”.

Ni uku byifashe ahantu h’ingenzi bari kurinda ko Mers ikwirakwira.

Abahanga muri siyansi bari kugerageza guhagarika ibyorezo by’ejo hazaza, bapima ingamiya n’abantu. Ariko isi iri guhinduka mu buryo bworohereza indwara kuva mu nyamaswa zijya mu bantu, gusa haracyibazwa niba gupima no kwirinda bihagije.

Ivomo:BBC

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