M23 ni bande? Bifuza iki?

Uvuze M23, bamwe bahita bumva Sultani Makenga abandi Bosco Ntaganda, abandi bagasubira inyuma kurushaho bakibuka Laurent Nkunda.

Kuva mu 2004, Gen Nkunda yivanye mu gisirikare cya DR Congo ajyana n’abasirikare be mu misozi ya Rutshuru ashinga umutwe wa CNDP wagiye ugaba ibitero ku ngabo za leta no ku mujyi wa Goma.

Impamvu zishingiye ku kurengera ubwoko no kurwanya indi mitwe y’inyeshyamba, nayo ishingiye ku moko, ni zimwe mu zatangwaga na Nkunda, n’abarwanyi be barimo Makenga na Ntaganda.

Uko ari batatu, babaye mu zahoze ari inyeshyamba za APR zafashe ubutegetsi mu Rwanda mu 1994, mbere y’uko bakomereza mu ntambara zo muri DR Congo mu mpera z’imyaka ya 1990.

Nkunda yaje gufatirwa mu Rwanda mu ntangiriro za 2009 aba ari naho afungirwa, maze CNDP ikuriwe na Ntaganda yumvikana na leta ya Kabila mu masezerano yo kuwa 23 Weruwe (Mars mu gifaransa) 2009.

Nyuma y’agahenge k’imyaka ine, mu 2012 havutse umutwe wiyise M23 abarwanyi bawo bakuriwe na Ntaganda na Makenga, uvuga ko amasezerano ya leta na CNDP yo kuwa 23 ‘Mars’ atubahirijwe.

Leta y’u Rwanda n’iya Uganda zashinjwe n’inzobere za ONU/UN kuba inyuma y’iyi mitwe y’inyeshyamba, ariko zakomeje kubihakana.

Ifatwa rya Goma

  • Mu kwa 11/2012: M23 yafashe umujyi wa Goma na Sake, inatangaza ko ikomereza Minova, Bukavu na Kisangani
  • Mu kwa 12/2012: Nyuma y’ibiganiro biyobowe na Uganda, M23 yarekuye umujyi wa Goma isubira mu birindiro byayo i Rutshuru, by’umwihariko ku misozi ya Chanzu na Runyoni
  • Mu kwa 02/2013: M23 yacitsemo ibice kubera kutumvikana ku buryo bashyize mu bikorwa ibyo biganiro na leta, ubushyamirane hagati yawo bwatumye Bosco Ntaganda ahungira i Kigali, Sultani Makenga yirukana Jean-Marie Runiga Lugerero wari perezida wayo asigara ari we mukuru wa M23
  • Mu kwa 05/2013: M23 yateye Goma nanone, ariko ingabo za leta zifatanyije n’iza Tanzania n’Afurika y’epfo zanesheje uyu mutwe intambara ikomereza hanze ya Goma
  • Mu kwa 11/2013: M23 yavanywe mu birindiro byayo bya nyuma ku misozi ya Chanzu na Runyoni mu ntambara yamamaye cyane muri Congo yari iyobowe na Col Mamadou Ndala
  • Mu kwa 12/2013 i Nairobi: Ishami rya politiki rya M23 ryasinye amasezerano yo kurangiza intambara na leta ya Joseph Kabila
  • Igice kimwe cy’abahoze ari abarwanyi ba M23 kiri mu Rwanda aho cyajyanywe mu nkambi iri mu burasirazuba bw’igihugu
  • Igice cya Makenga cyahungiye muri Uganda mu nkambi ziri hafi, abari muri icyo gice bakomeje kuba hagati ya Uganda na DR Congo
  • Ibyo bice byose bitegereje ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano y’i Nairobi

Kubera iki Runyoni na Chanzu?

Iyi ni imisozi iri mu gace kari hafi y’ibirunga, kegereye kandi umupaka w’u Rwanda n’uwa Uganda, inzobere mu bya gisirikare zihita ahantu h’ingenzi ku nyeshyamba.

Buhoro buhoro abarwanyi ba M23 bagiye bagaruka, bisuganya kandi binjiza muri bo abasore bakiri bato bugarijwe n’ubushomeri muri kariya karere.

Aka ni agace gatuwe n’abaturage bazi neza M23 kuko abarwanyi bayo bamwe bahavukiye, abandi bahafite imiryango kandi benshi muri bo bahabaye imyaka myinshi, ni agace bazi neza cyane kandi gashobora kuborohereza mu mirwano.

Ntibizwi neza niba Sultani Makenga w’imyaka 49 ari we ugikuriye abarwanyi ba M23 cyangwa hari undi wamusimbuye.

M23 kugeza ubu ntiragira icyo ivuga kuri ibi bitero ishinjwa, BBC yagerageje kuvugisha umuvigizi wayo ‘Willy Ngoma’ ariko ntibirashoboka kugeza ubu.

Gushyira ‘imyanda inyuma y’urugi’

Mu Ugushyingo (11) 2021 umusesenguzi wa politiki yo mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari wo mu ishyirahamwe International Crisis Group yabwiye BBC ko ibyemewe gukorwa na leta, ubwo mu 2013 umutwe wa M23 wahagarikaga intambara bitarangiye.

Muri byo harimo ko leta izafasha (mu buryo bw’imari) gusubiza mu buzima busanzwe bamwe muri abo barwanyi n’abandi bakinjizwa mu gisirikare.

Sematumba yagize ati: “Ntabwo mvuze ko M23 ari imyanda kuko ni abantu, ariko ibyabaye ni nk’uko wafata imyanda uri gukubura ukayishyira inyuma y’urugi ahatagaragara ariko ikiri aho.

“Rero leta bagiranye amasezerano bakwiye kujya hamwe bakabikemura burundu tukamenya ngo bariya babaye abaturage nk’abandi, ibyo rero ntabwo byigeze biba.”

Kuba mu minsi ishize M23 yarongeye kwisuganya ikanagira ubushobozi bwo gutera bifatwa nk’ikimenyetso cy’intege nke z’igisirikare n’ubutegetsi muri ako gace.

‘Willy Ngoma’ umuvugizi w’umutwe wa M23 mu cyumweru cyashize yasohoye amashusho avuga ko ingabo za leta zimaze iminsi zibagabaho ibitero mu birindiro byabo hafi y’imisozi y’ibirunga zibashakaho intambara.

Ubu biravugwa ko izi nyashyamba ari zo zateye ibirindiro by’ingabo za leta zikigarurira ahigeze kwitwa ‘ibirindiro bikuru bya M23’ ku misozi ya Chanzu na Runyoni.

Sematumba avuga ko ibitero nk’ibi bya M23 bishobora gusubiza inyuma icyizere cyari gihari kiva ku kuba “Perezida Tshisekedi abanye neza n’abaturanyi nka Kagame na Museveni”.

Ati: “Rero hagombye gukomeza iriya gahunda y’ibi bihugu yo kubaka ubufatanye ngo bakemure burundu iki kibazo cy’umutekano kigenda kigaruka buri gihe.”

BBC

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