Menya byimbitse amateka y’Abanyamulenge(igice cya Kabiri)…..

Ibikurikira igice cya mbere

Intambara zagejeje Abanyamulenge ku kwitwa Abanyamulenge

Nyuma y’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi n’inkundura yo kwigenga kw’ibihugu bya Afurika mu myaka ya za 1960, ibihugu byinshi byashatse kwigarurira Congo.

Ku ruhande rumwe, hari itsinda rya Leta ryari rimaze kwigarurirwa na Joseph Désiré Mobutu  n’ingabo ze, ryari rishyigikiwe na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika n’Ububiligi, rikaba ryarakoranaga bya hafi n’umucancuro w’Umubiligi witwaga Jean Schramme (Shikaramu). Ku rundi ruhande, hari itsinda ry’umutwe w’Inyeshyamba witwaga Simba, wari warigaruriye hafi Uburasirazuba bwa Congo bwose ushyigikiwe n’Abasoviyeti, Ubushinwa na Cuba.

Schramme n’Ingabo za Leta baje kotsa igitutu ingabo za Simba, ibintu bihindura isura, inyeshyamba zabaga zicitse ku icumu zitangira kwigabiza inka z’Abanyamulenge zizirira kuzimara. Mobutu, ingabo ze na Schramme babyumvise basabye Abanyamulenge kwiyomeka kuri Leta, abemerera no kubaha imbunda zo kurinda ubushyo bwabo no guhumbahumba inyeshyamba za Simba zari zarayobotswe bikomeye n’abo mu bwoko bw’Ababembe, ubwoko bwari bwiganje muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo.

Insoresore z’Abanyamulenge zitwaje intwaro, zatangiye kurasa inyeshyamba za Simba zari zarabamariye inka, zicamo abasore n’abagabo benshi bo mu bwoko bw’Ababembe. Kuva ubwo, Umubembe afata Umunyamulenge nk’umugambanyi, wagize uruhare mu kurimbura ubwoko bwabo, kandi akanongeraho ko yaje amusanga kuri ubwo butaka. Nyamara ntibyari byo.

Ahagana mu mwaka w’ 1965 –1969 Laurent Désiré Kabila n’ishyaka rye PPR (Parti du Peuplepour la Révolution) yatangije intambara yo kurwanya Mobutu. Abanyamulenge baje kwitandukanya na Kabila kubera ko abasilikare be bafataga abakobwa ku ngufu ndetse bakarya n’inka zabo. Aha abasaza bakuze mu Banyamulenge bategetse ko abagize uyu muryango mugari barwana begamiye ku ruhande rwa Mobutu ndetse uku kwihuza kw’Abanyamulenge na Mobutu gushegesha cyane Kabila n’ingabo ze biziviramo gutsindwa birangira zihungiye muri Tanzania, nyuma y’uko Che Guevara ashatse kuzifasha agasanga nta gahunda zifite.

Nyuma rero aho Mobutu afatiye ubutegetsi, yabashyize ku ibere, bariga karahava, ndetse agenda abaha imyanya ikomeye mu butegetsi. Aha twavuga nka Barthelémy Bisengimana wari wariyise Bisengo ya Mokili, muri Authentification ya Mobutu, waje no kuba Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ibiro muri Perezidansi ya Mobutu, Bizimana Karahamuheto wari wariyise Bizima Karaha, na Shamukiga wari wariyise Shamukina.

Ikindi kizwi cyane mu muryango mugari w’Abanyamulenge ni ukororoka kwabo kwatewe n’inama bagiriwe n’intiti yitwa Muhoza Isaac na Bisengimana Barthelémy aho bari bugarijwe n’itotezwa bakorerwaga n’abaturanyi babo b’Ababembe, Abafurero, Abanyentu, n’andi moko atuye kariya gace. Aya moko yahoraga abagabaho ibitero yitwaje ko ari Abanyarwanda.

Uyu Muhoza Isaac yaje guteranya abasaza bakuze b’i Mulenge ababwira ko bagomba gushishikariza abahungu babo bakazajya bashaka bakiri bato k’uburyo ku myaka 15 umwana w’umuhungu cyangwa uw’umukobwa yagombaga guhita ashyingirwa, kugira ngo babyare abana benshi, bagwize amaboko, bazabashe guhangana n’abanzi babo.

Ikindi iyi ntwari mu Banyamulenge yibukirwaho cyane ni uko ahagana mu 1972 yateranije inama n’abasaza bakuze akababwira ko bagomba gushimangira ko bagomba kwitwa “ABANYAMULENGE” hagamijwe kwanga izina ry’Ubunyarwanda bitwaga n’Ababembe n’Abafurero ngo kuko nk’umuntu wize atumvaga uburyo bitwa Abanyarwanda kandi bari bageze mu binyejana birindwi bari kuri ubwo butaka bwiswe Congo bahatuye, kandi n’inama za Berlin na Bruxelles zarabagize Abanyekongo kimwe n’abandi bose. Nguko rero uko Abanyamulenge batangiye kurwanira ubwenegihugu kugeza ubwo Mobutu abubahereye mu 1981, yemera ko Abanyamulenge ari ubwoko bumwe mu moko arenga 500 atuye Congo. Gusa intambara yabo yakomeje gututumba kuko bari bafite uburenganzira bwo gutora ariko batemerewe gutorwa.

Icyo gihe Abanyamulenge basaga n’ababaho biyometse ku Balega bari biganje ahitwa Mwenga,Ababembe babonekaga muri Teritwari ya Fizi n’Abafulero bari Uvira, guhera ubwo, andi moko ntiyongeye kubita abanyamahanga b’Abanyarwanda.

Mu matora y’Abayobozi b’Intara yo mu 1985, Ababembe n’Abafurero (biyitaga Abahutu bo muri Zaïre) bagaragaje urwango rukomeye ku Banyamulenge bituma batangira guhangana kugeza ubwo mu 1991. Abasore b’Abanyamulenge batangiye gutekereza kwitoza igisirikare kugira ngo bazirwaneho igihe bazaba babangamiwe n’abari bamaze kubabuza gutorwa.

Birumvikana rero ko Abanyamulenge, bari bamaze kuba umuryango mugari uhuje ya moko yose yavuye mu Rwanda mu bihe bitandukanye, bakanga kwivanga n’abandi, bikaza kurangira babaye Abanyekongo badasanzwe, batandukanye n’abandi Banyekongo bavuga Ikinyarwanda biganje muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru, batangiye kwigaragaza nk’indwanyi z’akataraboneka muri kano gace.

Guhindura uruhande kw’Abanyamulenge

Ku ya 01 Ukwakira 1990, FPR-Inkotanyi yateye u Rwanda igamije kubohora igihugu no gucyura impunzi zo mu 1959, maze ku ikubitiro Abanyamulenge bumva ko ari intambara y’Abatutsi bashaka kwisubiza u Rwanda, maze biyibagiza byose bitabira urugamba ku bwinshi. Urugamba rwari ruyobowe na Paul Kagame rwasabaga ubwitange n’abasirikare benshi ndetse n’amikoro yokugura ibikoresho. Birumvikana ko atari kwanga ayo maboko. Aha rero hagaragaye guhindura uruhande kuko mu 1965-1969, Abanyamulenge barwanaga ku ruhande rwa Mobutu, none iki gihe bisanze barwana ku ruhande adashyigikiye.

Twibutse koMobutu yari yatanze ingabo zo kurwana ku ruhande rwa Habyarimana Juvénal. Mobutu yatunguwe no kubona ba Banyamulenge yashyize imbere akabaha imyanya mu mashuri no mu butegetsi, bari ku ruhande rumurwanya, kandi yarabahaye ubwenegihugu bw’igihugu cye. Muri Zaïre hashyizweho Komisiyo ishinzwe kwiga ku kibazo cy’Abanyamulenge yari iyobowe na Mambweni Vangu, mu gihe gito, yanzura ko Abanyamulenge bose ari Abanyarwanda kandi bagomba gutaha iwabo hatitawe ku gihe bagereye muri iki gihugu. Kubera iryo hohoterwa bagiye bakorerwa, Abanyamulenge bisanze bari mu ngabo zitandukanye muri Afurika zirimo n’izahoze ari iza FPR-Inkotanyi ikiri mu ishyamba n’ubwo nta mibare yashyizwe ahagaragara yerekana uko banganaga. Muri bo hari abari bafite ku mutima guhirimbanira kuzajya kubohoza Zaïre, nabo bakagira uburenganzira nk’ubw’abandi Banyekongo basaga n’aho bavukijwe.

Abanyepolitiki bo muri Congo barwanyaga Mobutu babonye urwaho rwo kumushinja ko yashyize ku ibere Abanyarwanda none bakaba bamweretse igihandure. Abanyamulenge bari babereye igisebo gikomeye Mobutu Sese Seko, umubyeyi wa Zaïre nk’uko Habyarimana yamwitaga.

Iyi ntambara yo kubohora u Rwanda, Abanyamulenge bagizemo uruhare, yaje kurangira ku wa 04 Nyakanga 1994. Mu gushimira Abanyamulenge, Leta yabahaye imyanya myinshi mu gihugu cyane cyane mu bucamanza bwari bwarashegeshwe bikomeye kandi bufite akazi kenshi ko gucira imanza abari baragize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994.

Abanyamulenge ntibanyuzwe kuko imiryango yari yatakaje abana babo mu rugamba itigeze ihabwa impozamarira. Barakajwe kandi no kudahabwa imyanya ikomeye bifuzaga mu nzego zirimo igisirikare bityo bahita bagira inyota yo kubohoza Zaïre.

Mu w’ 1996 hongeye kuburwa dossier ya Laurent Désiré Kabila ubwo yashakaga guhirika Mobutu. Nibwo hashingwaga AFDL (Alliance des Forces Démocratiques de Libération). Iyi ntambara yahise yitabirwa kandi igirwamo uruhare rutaziguye n’Abanyamulenge bari bamenyereye kariya karere cyane. Aha Abanyamulenge bari bongeye guhindura uruhande kuko Mobutu bashakaga guhirika yari yarabahaye ubwenegihugu n’imirimo ikomeye muri Leta ye nk’inyiturano y’uko bamufashije gutsinda Kabila wo muri 1969.

Ubu noneho bari bifatanyije na Kabila ku mugaragaro, nawe arabyemera kuko yashakaga imbaraga zo guhangana na Maréchal Mobutu. Mobutu yakuweho mu 1997. Guhera ubwo kugeza magingo aya, Abanyamulenge ni ubwoko bukomeye muri Congo, kuko bugaragara mu nzego zikomeye nk’Igisirikare, Igipolisi, Sena, Inteko Ishinga Amategeko no mu butegetsi butandukanye bwo ku rwego rwo hejuru, kandi bigoye kuba wagira ubutegetsi bugakomera muri Congo, uwo waba uri we wese, utavuga rumwe nabwo. Laurent Désire Kabila yirengagije ibyo Abanyamulenge bamukoreye mu 1969, yemera gufatanya nabo.

Ese uko kwirengagiza kwari kumara igihe kingana iki?

Iyi ntambara yasize urwango rukomeye andi moko yo muri Congo yari afitiye Abanyamulenge kuko bababonaga nk’abanyembaraga bafashije Mobutu gutsinda Kabila mu 1969, bakanafasha Kabila gukuraho Mobutu mu 1997. Ntibyatinze Abanyamulenge bahise babonwa nk’ikibazo kuri Leta ya Laurent Désire Kabila, kandi biyumva nk’Abanyamulenge, bafite ubwenegihugu bwa Congo, bahawe na Mobutu. Nibwo Patrick Masunzu, wari uzobereye igisirikare yahise agumura Abanyamulenge. Uku kwigumura kwa Masunzu kwatewe n’uko hagendaga hicwa Abanyamulenge bakomeye mu gisirikare, kugeza igihe ubwo bahirikaga Mobutu nta Munyamulenge wabashaga guhangana na Kabila.

Kabila yagaruye ya nzika ya kera, kugeza ubwo yirukanye Abanyarwanda atangira no kwica Abanyamulenge, abaziza ibyo bamukoreye mu 1969, ubwo bafashaga Mobutu kumutsinda. Laurent Désiré Kabila yaje kwicwa n’abamurindaga, asimburwa n’umuhungu we Joseph Kabila Kabange, na we washinjwaga kugira isano n’Abanyarwanda. Kabila muto yahise amenesha Abanyamulenge bisanga nta ruhande basigayeho, kubera guhora bahinduranya impande barwanira. Ikibazo cyabo cyari gisubiye ibubisi. Masunzu n’abandi Banyamulenge bakomeye bahise batangiza intambara yo guharanira uburenganzira bwabo.

Nyuma haje kuvuka undi mutwe muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru, maze hashingwa RCD (Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie)/Goma. Iyi RCD yari irimo Abanyamulenge bake cyane, Abagogwe n’Abanyejomba. Iri shyaka ryaje gusenyuka, bitewe n’uko Abanyamulenge bahise babona ko icyo barwanira gitandukanye n’intego yatumye bafata intwaro. Abasirikarebarwaniraga RCD Goma bemeye kuvanga ingabo na Leta. Gusa hari Abanyamulenge bakomeye nka Azarias Ruberwa, Moïse Nyarugabo, Général Bisengimana, n’abandi bakomeje kuba mu myanya ikomeye muri Congo.

Igice cya mbere

Biracyaza.……

Inyandiko yakusanyijwe na Léon Patrick Gatete/Kamonyi

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