U Rwanda ku mwanya wa mbere mu kugira isuku muri Afurika

Abashakashatsi bo muri Kaminuza za Yale na Columbia (Yale University &Columbia University) bafatanyije n’Ihuriro Mpuzabukungu ku Isi (World Economic Forum) maze bagenzura imiterere y’isuku no kubungabunga ibidukikije mu bihugu 180 ku Isi.

Ikigo cyita ku bidukikije muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika (US Environment Protection Agency-EPA) cyashingiye kuri ubwo bushashatsi maze nacyo gisuzuma ingingo 10 zirimo ubwiza bw’umwuka, amazi, isuku n’isukura, urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima, imiturire, ihame ry’uburambe n’ibindi. EPA ifasha ibihugu kureba uko amategeko yo kubungabunga ibidukikije ahagaze n’uburyo ingamba z’ibidukikije zigenda zigerwaho.

Tugiye kubagezaho ibihugu 10 byahize ibindi muri Afurika, mu 2021, mu kugira isuku no kubungabunga ibidukikije, duhere ku mwanya wa 10.

  1. Namibia

Namibiya ni igihugu cyo muri Afurika y’Amajyepfo, cyaje ku mwanya wa 10 n’amanota 40.2 ku rutonde rwa EPA. Perezida w’iki gihugu yahagurukiye we ubwe kongera kuzahura isuku yacyo kugira ngo cyongerere gukurura ba Mukerarugendo bongere kugisura, kuko umurwa mukuru wacyo, Windhoek, wahoze usurwa kurusha iyindi muri Afurika.

Uyu munsi ni umujyi wa 4 ufite isuku kurusha iyindi kuri uyu mugabane. Amanota ya EPA awuhesha umwanya w’101 ku isi yose. Abanyanamibiya babikesha ubuyobozi bwiza n’amategeko y’isuku ahamye biyemeje kwimakaza isuku mu ngo.

  1. Botswana

Botswana yavuye mu gihe gishize ku mwanya wa nyuma mu bihugu bikennye igera ku mwanya wa mbere mu bihugu bikize muri Afurika mu myaka mikeya ishize. Nta gihe gishize iki gihugu kibarizwa ku mwanya wa 2 mu bikennye ku isi. Iki gihugu cyahanganye no kuzamura ubukungu bwacyo, bituma kigera mu bihugu bifite isuku muri Afurika. Ibi bigaragarira buri wese ugeze mu murwa mukuru wacyo, Gaborone,kuko yakirwa n’imihanda isa neza kandi izira akajagari. Urunyuranyurane rw’imodoka mu miturirwa yubatswe n’ibirahure n’ikirere gicyeye biha isura nziza uwo mujyi bigatuma uhageze atifuza kuhava.

Botswana, ku rutonde rwa EPA, ni iya 9 muri Afurika n’amanota 40.4. Uyu mwanya bawukesha imikorere myiza itandukanye n’iyo mu gihe cy’ubukoloni.

  1. Morocco (Maroke)

Mu 2019, Maroke yari iya mbere muri Afurika ku rutonde rwa EPA, ariko muri uyu mwaka yasubiye inyuma igera ku mwanya wa 8 n’amanota 42.3. Ibi ntibyatewe n’uko badohotse, ahubwo byatewe n’uko n’ibindi bihugu byakoze cyane. Uyu mwanya iwukesha impamvu nyinshi zirimo kugira amazi meza, ikirere gihehereye ndetse n’ubushake bwa guverinoma ifatanyije n’abaturage mu gusukura no kurimbisha igihugu cyabo. Isuzuma ryakozwe na NBC times ryashyize umujyi wa Ifrane ku mwanya 2 mu mijyi 12 yasuzumwe ku isi.

  1. South Africa (Afurika y’Epfo)

N’ubwo abaturage ba Afurika y’Epfo biyongera cyane, Guverinoma yashyize imbaraga mu kurimbisha imijyi yabo, irimo Cape Town n’indi mijyi ifatwa nk’ahantu heza ku rwego rw’isi. Kuri uru rutonde rwa EPA iri ku mwanya wa 7 muri Afurika n’amanota 43.1, akanayihesha umwanya wa 95 ku Isi.

  1. Egypt (Misiri)

Ku mwanya wa 6, haza Misiri n’amanota 43.3 ku rutonde rwa EPA. Ni iya 5 mu bihugu bisurwa cyane muri Afurika kubera ingoro z’amateka na za pyramides, aho aba Farawo bashyingurwaga. Abahasura bibaza ubuhanga zari zubakanye. N’ubwo abaturage ba Misiri badakize cyane, Guverinoma yabo yitaye cyane ku isuku n’isukura, kugeza ubwo umwaka ushize yabaye iya 91 ku isi mu gusukura amazi yakoreshejwe akongera gukoreshwa, kugabanya ku rwego rwo hejuru imyuka ihumanya ikirere no kubungabunga umutungo kamere. Abaturage babayeho neza kandi barishimye.

Muri iyi myaka ishize babashije kugabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere ku rwego rwo hejuru, bituma Misiri iba igihugu kibereye guturwamo.

  1. Algeria

Ku mwanya wa 5 haza Algeria n’amanota ya EPA 44.8. Iki ni igihugu cyo muri Afurika y’Amajyaruguru, ku nkombe z’inyanja ya Mediterane ndetse ikaba ifite igice kinini cy’ubutayu bwa Sahara. Hamwe n’abaturage bagera kuri 44,742,991 mu 2021, iki gihugu cyarwanye intambara ikomeye yo kurwanya ibibazo byaterwaga n’ubuhumane bw’amazi (water pollution). Hashyizweho amategeko akarishye agamije

kubungabunga ibidukikije n’umutungo kamere. Aya mategeko yakurikiwe n’imihate y’abaturage ku buryo hari icyeze cy’ejo hazaza.

  1. Mauritius (Ibirwa bya Mauritius)

Ku mwanya wa 4 haza Ibirwa bya Mauritius n’amanota ya EPA 45.1. Iki gihugu cyaranzwe no kugaruka mu myanya ya mbere muri Afurika mu bintu byinshi. Ni igihugu gifite pasiporo ya kabiri ikomeye ku isi (yakirwa nta ngorane mu bihugu byinshi). Mauritius kandi izwiho kugira ahantu heza ho kuruhukira ku nkombe z’amazi (best beaches), ikanaba igihugu cya kabiri mu korohereza ishoramari (doing business), n’ibindi byinshi. Ariko igituma iki gihugu gisurwa cyane ni uburyo hari isuku itangaje haba mu mihanda yaho no ku nkombe z’inyanja. Iki gihugu ni icya 3 mu bunini muri Afurika kikaba icya 81 ku isi.

  1. Gabon

Biratangaje kubona Gabon kuri uru rutonde ariko EPA yemeza ko yakoze ibitangaza muri iyi myaka 2, yibanda ku isuku n’isukura. Ubu iri ku mwanya wa 3 n’amanota 45.8.

N’ubwo iki gihugu gifite abaturage bake cyane ugeranije n’uko kingana, kiri mu bihugu bisurwa cyane muri Afurika kubera ubwiza bwacyo. Muri 2017, ku bufatanye bwa Guverinoma, Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima (WHO) n’ Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Bana (UNICEF), abaturage ba Gabon barenga 90% mu mijyi na 55% mu byaro bagejejweho amazi meza, imiryango igerwaho na serivisi z’isuku n’isukura irazamuka igera kuri 49% mu mijyi na 37% mu byaro. Ibi byatumye Guverinoma n’abaturage bafatanya batungura isi yose.

  1. Tunisia

Tuniziya ni cyo gihugu gitoya mu bihugu by’Abarabu giherereye muri Afurika

y’Amajyarugu. Nyuma yo gushegeshwa n’inkubiri y’imyagaragambyo y’abashakaga impinduka, abayobozi ba Tuniziya kimwe n’abaturanyi bayo Alijeria na Libiya, byose bikora ku nkombe zo mu majyepfo ya Mediterane, bashyize ingufu mu kurimbisha ibihugu byabo, mu rwego rwo gukurura ba Mukerarugendo baturutse hirya no hino haba mu Burayi na Aziya.

Tuniziya ituwe n’abaturage 11,732,127, bajya kungana n’ab’u Rwanda, yakoze byinshi mu gushishikariza abaturage bayo kwita ku isuku n’isukura no kubungabunga ibidukikije ndetse hashyirwaho amategeko n’amabwiriza aboneye. Tuniziya yashyizeho amategeko yo kurengera amazi, ingufu no kurwanya ubuhumane. Ibi byamutumye ijya ku mwanya wa 2 muri Afurika n’amanota ya EPA 46.6 binatuma ifata umwanya wa 69 ku isi.

  1. Rwanda

Ku mwanya wa mbere haza u Rwanda n’amanota ya EPA 46.7. Iki gihugu kiyobowe na Nyakubahwa Paul Kagame cyiganje mu binyamakuru muri iyi myaka ya vuba kubera isuku yacyo, cyane cyane mu murwa mukuru Kigali, aho amahanga yakuye ingofero.

U Rwanda rumaze imyaka 4 yikurikiranyije ruri ku isonga mu kugira umujyi usukuye muri Afurika. N’ubwo igihugu cyashegeshwe na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, cyahise kiyubaka vuba vuba, kiharira imyanya ya mbere myinshi, atari muri Afurika gusa, ahubwo no ku isi yose.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yafashe ingamba nyinshi zijyanye n’isuku no kurengera ibidukikije, harimo nko guca amasashe ya pulasitike atabora ndetse no gutangira gahunda z’isuku binyuze mu muganda. Hashyizweho amategeko n’amabwiriza, politiki zo kuyashyira mu bikorwa ndetse n’uburyo bwo gukurikirana ibikorwa, bituma intego zari zigamijwe zigerwaho mu gihe gito. Ubu bufatanye hagati ya Guverinoma n’abaturage nibwo bwagejeje u Rwanda ku isonga mu bihugu bifite isuku muri Afurika muri 2021.

Léon Patrick Gatete

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