Ethiopia – Tigray: Ishusho y’imbonekarimwe y’uko ibintu bimeze mu karere k’imirwano

Kuva imirwano yatangira mu mwaka ushize mu karere ka Tigray mu majyaruguru ya Ethiopia, kuhagera byaragabanyijwe bikomeye ku banyamakuru n’imiryango itanga imfashanyo. Kera kabaye, umunyamakuru wa BBC Kalkidan Yibeltal yashyize yemererwa kugera muri ako karere, aho yashoboye kubona ukuntu imibereho y’abahatuye imeze nabi cyane.

Buri munsi umujyi wa Shire ni ko urushaho kwakira abandi bantu bashya baje bawuhungiramo.

Betlehem Tesfaye, w’imyaka itandatu, wahageze ahunze aturutse mu mujyi baturanye wa Aksum (Axum/Axoum) uri ku ntera hafi ya 50km mu burasirazuba, yatakaje amaguru ye yombi mu gihe cy’imirwano. Nyina yishwe n’igisasu cyasize kimugaje uyu mwana we.

Mu kumuvuza, se yakoresheje amafaranga yari yarizigamiye. None ubu ntabwo azi uko yashobora kumubonera amaguru y’amaterano (prosthetic legs) yo kumufasha kugenda.

Cyo kimwe no mu yindi mijyi yo muri Tigray, umujyi wa Shire wabaye ubuhungiro bw’abantu b’imbabare babarirwa mu bihumbi za magana byabaye ngombwa ko bata ingo zabo kubera imirwano yaranzwemo ibirego by’ihonyorwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu birimo ubwicanyi no gufata ku ngufu abagore n’abakobwa mu buryo bugambiriwe.

Ariko uyu mujyi utuwe n’abantu 170,000, urwi rwagati muri Tigray, urimo kugorwa mu buryo bwihariye.

Mu mezi ane ashize, umujyi wa Shire wakiriye abantu benshi cyane, kandi ntiwari witeguye.

Amashuri yo muri uyu mujyi ndetse na kaminuza byabaye indiri y’akababaro.

Imiryango itanga imfashanyo igereranya ko abantu bagera ku 200,000 kuri ubu baba mu nkambi zubatswe huti huti muri uyu mujyi. Benshi muri bo ni abagore n’abana.

Abahageze mbere bahageze mu kwezi kwa cumi na kumwe mu 2020 ubwo imirwano yatangiraga. Ahanini baturutse mu bibaya byo majyepfo no mu majyepfo ashyira uburengerazuba bwa Tigray, ahari isibaniro ry’imirwano mu minsi ya mbere.

Iyi mirwano yaturutse ku bushyamirane bwari bumaze igihe bututumba hagati ya leta ya Minisitiri w’intebe wa Ethiopia Abiy Ahmed n’abategetsi bahoze bategeka aka karere bo mu ishyaka Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) – ryari ryiganje muri politike ya Ethiopia kugeza ubwo Bwana Abiy yageraga ku butegetsi mu mwaka wa 2018.

Nyuma yuko Bwana Abiy ategetse igabwa ry’igitero cya gisirikare kubera iterwa ry’ikigo cy’ingabo za Ethiopia mu murwa mukuru Mekelle wa Tigray, imirwano yahise irota mu bice byinshi ndetse yitabirwa n’ingabo nyinshi zitandukanye.

Mu majyepfo no mu majyepfo ashyira uburengerazuba bwa Tigray, ingabo zo mu karere ka Amhara bahana imbibi zifatanyije n’ingabo z’igihugu za Ethiopia mu kurwanya ingabo z’ishyaka TPLF.

N’ubwoba bwinshi, Atsede Mebrahtom w’imyaka 65 aribuka uko byari bimeze muri iyo minsi.

Madamu Atsede yabaga mu mujyi witwa Dansha, afashwa n’abakobwa be babiri n’imiryango yabo.

Atsede Mebrahtom ati: "Turi abanyamahirwe kuba tutarapfuye"
Atsede Mebrahtom ati: “Turi abanyamahirwe kuba tutarapfuye”

Madamu Atsede, abakobwa be, abagabo babo ndetse n’abuzukuru be, ubu bose barimo kuba mu nkambi zo muri uyu mujyi wa Shire.

Ubwo bahungaga bagata ingo zabo bahunganye ibintu bicye bashoboye n’amafaranga macye, ntabwo bari bazi aho bizarangira bageze.

Bagendaga n’amaguru iyo byaba bibaye ngombwa, ubundi byashoboka bagakoresha amwe mu makamyo menshi n’imodoka za bisi zuzuye abantu na bo bahuye n’ibyo bibazo.

Ati: “Ntabwo twashoboraga kuruhuka”. Bari bafite inyota n’inzara. Ati: “Usabiriza agace k’umugati ukagaha umwana. Twatiye ibikombe ngo tubone uko duha abana amazi”.

Avuga ko mu nzira banyuzemo yabonye imirambo y’abantu iri ku muhanda idashyinguye – ishusho abona izamugora kuyibagirwa.

Ati: “Ntabwo twishimye, ariko turacyariho. Iminsi iraza ikagenda [irahita indi igataha]. Turi abanyamahirwe kuba tutarapfuye”.

Bamwe bavuga ko byabaye ngombwa ko bata ingo zabo ziri ahantu ubu hagenzurwa n’ingabo zo mu karere ka Amhara. Leta y’akarere ka Amhara ivuga ko aho hantu hari harafashwe ku ngufu ubwo TPLF yagera ku butegetsi mu myaka ya 1990.

Ibisigisigi by'imirwano biracyagaragara
Ibisigisigi by’imirwano biracyagaragara

Hari imfashanyo irimo gutangwa mu nkambi. Ariko aba bari mu nkambi bavuga ko idahagije.

Ubutegetsi bw’inzibacyuho (cyangwa bw’imfatakibanza mu Kirundi) bwa Tigray – bwashyizweho na leta ya Ethiopia nyuma yuko TPLF ihiritswe ku butegetsi – buvuga ko abantu bagera kuri miliyoni enye bacyeneye imfashanyo muri aka karere – barenze kimwe cya kabiri cy’abaturage ba Tigray.

Abaturage barenga miliyoni imwe bataye ingo zabo.

Etenesh Nigussie, umuvugizi w’ubwo butegetsi bw’inzibacyuho, avuga ko abaterankunga n’imiryango itanga imfashanyo bakwiye kongera umuhate wabo.

Hashize igihe amahanga asaba ko imiryango itanga imfashanyo yakwemererwa kugera muri ako karere yisanzuye.

Ahagaze mu muryango w’inyubako yahoze ikorerwamo n’abategetsi ba TPLF i Mekelle, Madamu Etenesh yagize ati: “Ubu [imiryango itanga imfashanyo] yemerewe kuza no gufasha. Iki ni cyo gihe nyacyo”.

Ati: “Twiteze ko iduha ibicyenewe byose byo gufasha no kurokora abantu bacu – byiyongera ku mfashanyo irimo gutangwa na leta”.

Ikarita ya Tigray muri Ethiopia

Dusubiye muri wa mujyi wa Shire, mpuye na Leteberhan Assefa wahageze aturutse mu mujyi wa Humera, umujyi muto uri mu ntera ya 450km uvuye hano, ukaba uri hafi y’umupaka wa Ethiopia, Sudan na Eritrea.

Mbere gato yuko imirwano itangira, umukobwa wa Madamu Leteberhan yabyaye abazwe (caesarean section/césarienne), nuko ubwo bahungaga yagombaga kwita kuri uwo mukobwa we wari urimo yoroherwa, akanamutwaza uwo mwana w’uruhinja. Mu nkambi, avuga ko muri rusange yumva afite umutekano, ariko ko atitaweho mu mibereho.

Nubwo hari iyi mibereho idashinga, abantu babarirwa mu bihumbi bakomeje kugera muri uyu mujyi wa Shire, bakahagera mu modoka za bisi zuzuye birenze urugero, mu makamyo ndetse bari no mu mizigo itwawe n’amafarasi.

Impamvu ni uko nubwo mu gihe cy’ibyumweru leta ya Ethiopia yashoboye kwigarurira igice kinini cya Tigray, umutekano uracyari mucye, hakaba havugwa imirwano ya hato na hato mu bice bimwe na bimwe.

Muri Tigray haracyakurikizwa amategeko yo mu bihe bidasanzwe, haba umukwabu nijoro, ndetse hari na za bariyeri nyinshi ku bagenzi bagenda muri aka karere.

Ariko, uko imirwano yarangira kose, ibikomere bishobora kuzafata igihe cy’imyaka ngo bikire. Kuri bamwe, inkovu zizahoraho iteka.

Young girl in a dress

Betlehem Tesfaye, w’imyaka itandatu, yatakaje amaguru ye yombi ubwo igisasu cyaturikaga

Ivomo:BBC

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