Menya abaperezida ba Amerika baburanishijwe na Sena ku birego byitwa ‘impeachment’

Mu mateka ya Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika, abakuru b’igihugu batatu kuri 46 baburanishijwe na Sena ku birego bita impeachment by’Umutwe w’Abadepite w’inteko ishinga amategeko, Congress. Abo ni Andrew Johnson, Bill Clinton na Donald Trump (we byanamubayeho inshuro ebyeri muri manda ye imwe yategetse). Hari ku italiki ya 24 y’ukwezi kwa kabili mu 1868 ubwo abadepite bemeje ikirego kuri Perezida Johnson. Ni we wabaye uwa mbere na mbere byari bibayeho.

Andrew Johnson yabaye perezida wa 17 wa Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika. Yatowe bwa mbere nka visi-perezida wa Abraham Lincoln mu 1864. Perezida Lincoln yishwe ku itariki ya 15 y’ukwezi kwa kane mu 1865, amaze iminsi 42 yonyine gusa atangiye manda ye ya kabiri. Andrew Johnson, nk’uko itegeko nshinga ribiteganya, yahise amusimbura kugirango arangize iyo manda.

Nk’uko tubisanga ku rubuga rwa Sena ya Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika, senate.gov, Perezida Johnson yahise atangira guhangana bikomeye n’inteko ishinga amategeko, Congress. Bapfaga iki?

Icyo gihe, Congress yari igizwe n’abahagarariye leta zari zaragumye mu bumwe bw’igihugu bwatsinze intambara y’isubiranamo ry’abanegihugu, civil war, yabaye kuva mu 1861 kugera mu 1865. Leta zo mu majyepfo y’igihugu zatsinzwe ntizari ziri muri Congress. Perezida Johnson yavugaga ko iyi Congress yari inyuranyije n’amategeko, kubera ko, kuri we, itari iy’igihugu cyose. Congress yo si ko yabyemeraga.

Icya kabiri batumvikanagaho: Congress yashakaga ko abayobozi ba leta zo mu majyepfo bashoje intambara bahanwa by’intangarugero. Perezida Johnson we yashakaga kubaha imbabazi bose mu kivunge.

Icya gatatu, Congress yashyiragaho amategeko arengera uburenganzira bw’Abirabura bari bakiva mu bucakara, Perezida Johnon akayanga, akoresheje ububasha umukuru w’igihugu ahabwa n’itegeko nshinga bwo kuburizamo itegeko Congress yemeje iyo yumvise ataryemera, ibyo bita veto.

Kandi Perezida Andrew Johnson yari azwiho ko ari umuntu utava ku izima. Congress yageza aho irarambirwa, ihitamo inzira yo kumuhana. Ni uko ku itariki ya 24 y’ukwezi kwa kabiri mu 1868, hari kuwa mbere, Umutwe w’Abadepite watoye, wemeza ikirego, impeachment, n’amajwi 126 kuri 47, ugishyikiriza Sena yagombaga kukiburanisha, nk’uko itegeko nshinga ribiteganya. Icyo gihe, Umutwe w’Abadepite wa Congress wari ugizwe n’abantu 193.

Ikirego cyari gikubiyemo ibyaha 11, birimo kwica itegeko nshinga, no kwirukana minisitiri w’ingabo z’igihugu arenze ku itegeko ryamubuzaga kwirukana, Sena itabimwemereye, abakozi ba guverinoma bose babanza kwemezwa na Sena mbere y’uko batangira imirimo yabo (the Tenure of Office Act) ryabayeho igihe cy’imyaka 20, kuva mu 1867 kugera mu 1887. Ibindi byaha abadepite bamureze ni nko “kuvuga amadisikuru ya rutwitsi, no kutemera ko Congress yari iriho bikurikije itegeko nshinga.”

Sena yatangiye urubanza rwa Perezida Andrew Johnson ku itariki ya 5 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu 1868. Nk’uko itegeko nshinga ribiteganya, urubanza rwari ruyobowe na perezida w’urukiko rw’ikirenga rw’igihugu, Salmon Chase.Johnson yari afite abavoka batanu, bari bayobowe na Henry Stanbery, wari minisitiri we w’ubucamanza, weguye kugirango abashe

kumuburanira. Abadepite b’abashinjacyaha bari barindwi, bakuriwe na Benjamin Butler wo muri leta ya Massachusetts, iri mu burasirazuba bwa Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika. Abavoka ba Perezida Andrew Johnson bahamagaje abatangabuhamya 16, naho abadepite bazana 25.

Urubanza rwamaze amezi abiri. Ku itariki ya 16 mu 1868, Sena igiye gutangira gukora itora kuri buri cyaha, yabanje gusohora abaturage bose bakurikiranaga iburanisha, itora mu muhezo. Abasenateri 35 bemeje ibyaha byose 11 Perezida Andrew Johnson yaregwaga, naho 19 babimuhanaguraho. Icyo gihe Sena yari igizwe n’abantu 54. Habuze ijwi rimwe rukumbi gusa kugirango umubare w’amajwi 2/3 wo kumuhamya icyaha wagenywe n’iteko nshinga ugerweho, bityo Andrew Johnson aba ararusimbutse, ntiyakurwa ku butegetsi.

Yarategetse, arangiza manda ye ku itariki ya 4 y’ukwa gatatu mu 1869. Hashize imyaka itanu, mu 1874, yiyamamarije umwanya wa senateri aratorwa, nawe yicara mu mutwe wa Congress wamuburanishije. Ni we wenyine mu mateka ya Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika wabaye umukuru w’igihugu na senateri. Ariko yamaze amezi atatu gusa muri Sena, maze yitaba Imana ku itariki ya 31 y’ukwa karindwi mu 1875.

Usibye Andrew Johnson, mu bihe bya hafi abandi bakuru b’igihugu babiri, Bill Clinton na Donald Trump, nabo baburanishijwe na Sena mu mateka y’Amerika, bose babaye abere.


Ivomo :VOA

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