Leta izesa umuhigo wo guha amashanyarazi buri munyarwanda bitarenze 2024?

Leta y’u Rwanda ifite intego ko mu mwaka w’2024 buri munyarwanda agomba kuba afite amashanyarazi, abantu benshi bibaza niba bizagerwaho bakurikije imibare y’abamaze kugerwaho n’aya mashanyarazi. Umwe mu bayobozi ati “Icyo perezida yiyemeje byanze bikunze kiba kigomba kugerwaho.” Ni mu gihe hari abafite impungenge z’uko bizagerwaho.

Ahitwa i Mbare mu Kagari ka Kinini, mu Murenge wa Shyogwe ho mu karere ka Muhanga, ingo nyinshi zirimo n’izo mu cyiciro cya mbere cy’ubudehe zifite amashanyarazi. Uhereye k’uko izi ngo zifite amashanyarazi ari ko izindi zo mu gihugu zimeze, nta kabuza intego u Rwanda rwihaye yaba yagezweho na mbere ya 2024, ariko se n’ahandi niko bimeze?

Ibipimo byatangajwe na Leta mu mwaka  ushize byagaragaje ko abanyarwanda 51% bafite amashanyarazi. Muri bo abagera kuri 14% bakoresha akomoka ku ngufu zisubira nk’imirasire y’izuba naho 37% bakoresha aturuka ku miyoboro y’ikigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe ingufu (REG), uyu munsi abafite ayo mashanyarazi basaga 56%. Ese uko ibipimo bihagaze uyu munsi byatuma mu mwaka wagenwe intego yaba yagezweho?

The Source Post yaganiriye na Guverineri w’intara y’amajyaruguru, Bwana Gatabazi Jean Marie Vianney, intara ifite uturere dufite amashanyarazi ku buryo bukurikira;

Musanze ifite amashanyarazi ku gipimo cya 51%, Gakenke 36% Gicumbi 49.2%, Rulindo 46, Burera 41% muri rusange intara y’amajyaruguru iri kuri 45%.

Guverineri Gatabazi avuga ko hari imishinga iri gukorwa yo guha abaturage amashanyarazi ku buryo yizera ko umwaka w’ingengo y’imari ushobora kurangira uturere twose twarageze kuri 50%, hari n’abageze kuri 60%, bityo bakazageza muri 2024 abaturage bose bayafite.

Ati “Dufite umuhigo ukomeye kandi wa ngombwa nkuko Nyakubahwa Perezida wa Repubulika yihuje ko abaturage bose mu mwaka w’2024 baba bafite amashanyarazi. Bimaze igihe bitekerezwaho, twifuza ko abaturage bacu bose babona amashanyarazi kandi bizagerwaho kuko ahari ubushake byose birashoboka.”

Guverineri Gatabazi Jean Marie Vianney

Icyizere cya Gatabazi gishingiye ku mishinga minini u Rwanda rurimo kugiramo uruhare yo kugeza ku baturage ayo mashanyarazi.

Ati “ Icyizere kirahari. Bisaba n’irindi shoramari.Ubu leta irimo gushora imari kugirango ibone ingomero zindi zitanga amashanyarazi menshi, ari Nyabarongo, ari kuri Rusumo, ari muri gaze metane mu Kivu,,, ziriya ngomero nini zirimo gukorwa zizatanga megawati nyinshi zizakemura ikibazo, byo biri no mu mishinga biri gukorwa.”

Yungamo ati “ Ariko ikindi hari n’andi mashanyarazi agomba kuva hanze, hari n’andi agiye kuva kuri Rusizi. Ibyo byose binini nibyo bizazana amashanyarazi menshi noneho agashobora kugezwa mu baturage, kuko ikibazo ntabwo ari insinga ziyatwara kuko urabona imiyoboro yageze hafi ya yose, ikibazo ni umuriro ugomba kuboneka ukaba mwinshi, amashanyarazi ari gushakwa ku buryo twizeye ko bizakunda.

Uyu muyobozi avuga ko hari n’izindi mbaraga ziir gushyirwa mu gukoresha amashanyarazi adaturuka ku miyoboro migari ya REG, ahubwo akomoka ku mbaraga zisubira nk’ay’imirasire y’izuba n’umuyaga atazahenda leta.

Intego u Rwanda rwihaye ni uko muri ya mashanyarazi ruzageza ku baturage, ari ku kigero cya 52% azaba akomoka ku murongo mugari, mu gihe angana na 48% azaba akomoka ku ngufu zisubira.

Leta mu gukubitiriza hirya no hino

Leta iri gukubitiriza hirya hino ishakisha uko iyo ntego yagerwaho, ariko na none atari ukugera ku ntego gusa, ahubwo iharanira imibereho myiza y’abaturage. Ni muri urwo rwego yagiye iganira n’abafatanyabikorwa batandukanye ku bijyanye nuko yahabwa inkunga n’inguzanyo.

Muhire Hubert, Umuvugizi akaba n’ushinzwe imenyekanishabikorwa n’itumanaho muri Banki y’Amajyambere y’u Rwanda (Banque Rwandaise de Development-BRD) avuga ko hari intambwe bateye mu guharanira ko abaturage bagerwaho n’aya mashanyarazi.

Muhire avuga ko Leta ikomeje gushaka ubushobozi ngo yese umuhigo

Avuga ko hejuru y’amadolari asaga miliyoni 49 banki y’Isi yari yahaye u Rwanda ashyirwa mu kigega cy’ingufu zisubira, hiyongereyeho izindi 15 bahisemo gukoresha mu buryo bwa nkunganire izafasha abanyarwanda kubona amashanyarazi ari benshi ndetse n’izindi miliyoni 15 z’amadolari bise inyoroshyangwate.

Abisobanura atya “Umunyarwanda yajyaga kuri SACCO ashaka amashanyarazi akabona inguzanyo iri kumuha ngo aguremo ibikoresho byo kuzana ayo mashanyarazi ntibiri kuvamo. Noneho tukavuga tuti ‘reka yunganirwe hagendewe ku byiciro by’ubudehe.”

Nyuma dushyiraho ubundi buryo cy’ingwate bwo koroshya ngo umuturage adasabwa ingwate bamwe na bamwe batari bafite. Aho niho Leta y’u Busuwisi yaduhaye miliyoni 15 z’amadolari yiswe inyoroshyangwate.

Yungamo ati “ Rero ayo mafaranga yose agera kuri miliyoni 30 yiyongera ku yandi miliyoni 49, ni ukugirango abanyarwanda babone amashanyarazi.”

Muhire avuga ko aya mafaranga yashyizwe muri SACCO ngo abaturage bazigane zibafashe kubaha inguzanyo nta ngwate basaba, bagezweho amashanyarazi.

Akomeza avuga ko mu cyiciro cya mbere biteganyijwe ko ingo ibihumbi 445 zifite abaturage basaga miliyoni n’ibihumbi 800 zizahabwa ayo mashanyarazi. Muri rusange ngo izigera kuri 70% zizaba ziyobowe n’abagore n’urubyiruko.

Mu rwego rwo gufasha abatishoboye kandi ngo iyo nguzanyo izatangwa mu buryo bukurikira;

Umuturage wo mu cyiciro cya mbere cy’ubudehe wemerewe amashanyarazi atanyuze ku murongo mugari abona nkunganire ingana na 90% we akitangira 10%. Uwo mu cya kabiri yishyurirwa nkunganire ya 70% mu gihe uwo mu cya gatatu agenerwa 45%.

Abikorera bari gushyashyana

Mu kwesa umuhigo, leta yateganyije ko amashanyarazi angana na 48% azaba akomoka ku ngufu zisubira. Aya ahanini areba urwego rw’abikorera.

The Source Post yaganiriye na n’Umuyobozi w’ihuriro ry’ibigo bigamije kugeza mu Rwanda izo ngufu, Bwana Kabarebe Sunday, umuyobozi w’urugaga rw’abikorera mu bijyanye n’amashanyarazi rwitwa Energy Private Developers[EPD].

Kabarebe avuga ko uyu munsi bamaze kugeza aya mashanyarazi ku baturage bangana na 15%, intego ikaba ari ukuyageza ku bagera kuri 48% bitarenze muri 2024 nkuko u Rwanda rwabyiyemeje.

Kugirango bahagurukane imbaduko muri iyi minsi bashatse abafasha gukangurira abaturage kwitabira gufata ayo mashanyarazi biciye mu guhabwa inguzanyo no kwishingirwa na leta. Ubu ngo bafite abo bise aba agenti basaga 500 hirya no hino mu gihugu biganjemo urubyiruko babishishikariza abaturage ari nako banakorana na za sacco, batangiye gukorana nazo uko ari 46 mu gihugu, ariko bakaba bashaka gukorana n’iziri mu Rwanda hose.

Sunday Kabarebe

Avuga ku ntego bagamije agira ati “Turifuza gukwirakwiza imirasire aho amashanyarazi ya REG atagera, kugira ngo bibashe gukorwa ni uko habaha ubufatanye bw’inzego zitandukanye. Turabura ingo zigera kuri miliyoni n’ibihumbi 300 kugirango u Rwanda rwose rube rucaniwe[ingo zose], birasaba imbaraga nyinshi ko umuturage yumva ibyiza by’umurasire, ibibi bijyanye no gucana ibikomoka kuri peteroli; agatadowa, buji na batiri y’imodoka. Nkunganire izatuma wa muturage abona umuriro mwiza utuma umwana yiga nijoro, utuma acanirwa, utuma hagira umutekano, mu buryo bumuhendukiye.”

Uwimana Jeannette, umuyobozi wa SACCO Kivuruga yo mu karere ka Musanze imwe mu zirimo gutanga iyo nguzanyo, avuga ko babaze bagasanga umuturage wo mu cyiciro cya mbere azahabwa ayo mashanyarazi ku mafaranga y’u Rwanda ibihumbi 7 na 600, nayo ahabwa nk’inguzanyo agenda yishyura buhoho , kuko leta iba yamutangiye andi angana na 90% y’ikiguzi cy’ayo mashanyarazi[umurasire].

Mu gihe yakwishyura iyo nguzanyo mu mwaka umwe asabwa kwishyura agera ku 8,284 Frw, mu gihe ayishyuye mu myaka ibiri yakwishyura agera ku 8,968 Frw, bisobanuye ko inyungu iri ku 9% muri iyo sacco.

Leta mu isiganwa

Kugira ngo u Rwanda rugere ku ntego rwiyemeje bisaba by’umwihariko kongera ingano y’amashanyarazi atunganywa mu gihugu, akava kuri megawatt 224.63 atunganywa uyu munsi akagera kuri megawatt 556 bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2024.

Ni muri urwo rwego muri Werurwe 2017, hatangijwe umushinga wo kubaka urugomero rwa Rusumo ruhuriweho n’u Rwanda, Tanzania n’u Burundi, uzatanga megawatt 80 buri gihugu kigafata MW 26.7, ufite agaciro ka miliyoni 340$; biteganyijwe ko urwo rugomero ruzuzura muri Nyakanga 2021. Muri Gicurasi uyu mwaka imirimo yo kubaka uru rugomero yari igeze kuri 60%.

Undi ni uwo kubaka uruganda ruzatanga amashanyarazi aturutse kuri Nyiramugengeri mu gishanga cy’Akanyaru, mu Karere ka Gisagara. Uyu mushinga witiriwe sosiyete yashoyemo imari, Hakan, witezweho kuzatanga megawatt zisaga 80. Uyu mushinga biteganyijwe ko uzatangira gutanga amashanyarazi muri uyu mwaka wa 2020.

Hari kandi umushinga wo kubyaza amashanyarazi aturutse kuri gazi metane [Gaz methane] yo mu kiyaga cya Kivu uzatanga Megawatt 56. Uyu mushinga uzatwara miliyoni 200$, uzashyirwa mu bikorwa ku bufatanye bwa Leta y’u Rwanda na Sosiyete Shema Power Lake Kivu Ltd (SPLK Ltd). Ugiye kwiyongera ku wa KivuWatt ubyaza gaz methane megawatt 26, wubatswe n’ikigo cy’Abanyamerika, ContourGlobal, watashywe mu 2016.

Indi mishinga minini yo gutunganya amashanyarazi irimo uwo kubaka urugomero rwa Rusizi III ruhuriweho n’u Rwanda, Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo n’u Burundi, rukazatanga megawatt zigera kuri 230 ndetse na Nyabarongo ya II uzatanga megawatt 43.5 mu Ukwakira 2025 utwaye miliyoni zisaga 625 z’amadolari.

Imishinga yo gukwirakwiza amashanyarazi

Imishinga yo gukwirakwiza amashanyarazi irimo gukorwa hirya no hino mu gihugu muri uyu mwaka, irimo iyo kwagura imiyoboro isanzwe n’iyo kubaka imishya, biteganyijwe ko izageza amashanyarazi ku ngo zirenga ibihumbi 106.

Muri iyo mishinga, harimo uterwa inkunga na Banki y’Abarabu igamije guteza imbere ubukungu mu bihugu bya Afurika (BADEA), uzageza amashanyarazi ku ngo zirenga ibihumbi 18 mu turere twa Nyagatare na Burera.
Hari kandi undi mushinga uterwa inkunga na Banki y’Isi uzaha amashanyarazi ingo zirenga ibihumbi 13 mu Ntara y’u Burasirazuba, ibihumbi 10 mu Majyepfo, ibihumbi umunani mu Majyaruguru n’izisaga 5,700 mu Ntara y’Uburengerazuba.

REG igaragaza ko hari n’undi mushinga watewe inkunga na Banki Nyafurika Itsura Amajyambere (AfDB) uzatanga amashanyarazi ku ngo zisaga 6280 mu Karere ka Ngororero n’izindi zigera ku 4,835 mu turere tumwe tw’Amajyaruguru.

Uretse iyi mishinga iterwa inkunga ku bufatanye bwa Leta y’u Rwanda n’abaterankunga batandukanye, hari n’indi mishinga itandukanye ikorerwa hirya no hino iturutse ku ngengo y’imari y’Uturere.

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