September 18, 2020

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Urukingo rwa Coronavirus, dore abazaruhabwa bwa mbere, ibihugu baherereyemo n’uko ruzabageraho

Ibikorwa byihutirwa bidasanzwe biri gukorwa ngo urukingo rwa Coronavirus niruboneka ruzatangwe hose ku isi. Ariko hari impungenge ku ngaruka zo gutanguranwa kurubona.

Nonese ni inde uzarubona mbere, bizasaba ikihe kiguzi, ni gute kandi ruzatugeraho twese? BBC dukesha iyi nkuru yasesenguye ibi bikurikira:

Ubusanzwe inkingo zo kurwanya ibyorezo zifata imyaka ngo zikorwe neza zemezwe zinagezweho ku bantu. Ndetse rimwe ntizibe zitunganye neza.

Kugeza ubu, kimwe mu byorezo byandura cyararanduwe burundu – ubushita (smallpox/variole) – byafashe imyaka 200.

Ibindi – kuva ku mbasa, tetanusi, iseru n’igituntu – turacyabana nabyo ariko tukabihashya, ku bw’inkingo.

Ni ryari twakwitega urukingo rwa coronavirus?

Ishusho y'urukingo rwa Covid-19
Urukingo

Hari gukorwa amagerageza y’inkingo ku bihumbi by’abantu bashaka urukingira abantu Covid-19, indwara y’ubuhumekero iterwa na virusi yo mu bwoko bw’izitwa corona.

Igikorwa ubundi gishobora kumara imyaka 10, kuva ku bushakashatsi kugera ku kurugeza ku bantu, ubu kiri gukorwa mu gihe cy’amezi gusa.

Abashoramari bashyize miliyari z’amadorari muri ibi bikorwa byo gushakisha vuba bishoboka urukingo rw’iki cyorezo.

Amagerageza y’urukingo Uburusiya bwise Sputnik-V yerekanye gushitura ubwirinzi bw’umubiri kuri iyi virusi kandi kurutera abantu biratangira mu kwezi kwa cumi.

Ubushinwa buvuga ko bwamaze kubona urukingo rukora neza ubu ruri gukorwa ku bwinshi ngo ruhabwe abasirikare.

Gusa hagaragajwe impungenge nyinshi ku muvuduko izi nkingo zombi zakoranywe.

Nta na rumwe muri izo rwashyizwe ku rutonde rw’ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku buzima (WHO/OMS) rw’inkingo zageze ku cyiciro cya gatatu cy’igerageza – icyiciro cyo kugerageza urukingo ku bantu benshi.

Bamwe mu bari imbere muri iri siganwa bizeye ko inkingo zabo zizemezwa mu mpera z’uyu mwaka – nubwo OMS yo ivuga ko ititeze gutangira gukingira abantu bose Covid-19 mbere ya hagati mu 2021.

Kompanyi AstraZeneca y’Abongereza n’Abanya-Suède iri gukorana urukingo na Kaminuza ya Oxford, yo ubu iri gukora rwinshi mu rwo yamaze kugeraho mu gihe rukiri mu igerageza rya nyuma, yemeje kuzahita iha isi doze miliyari ebyiri zarwo nirumara kwemezwa.

Pfizer na BioNTech, zivuga ko zashoye arenga miliyari imwe y’amadorari muri gahunda yabo y’urukingo rwa Covid-19, bizeye ko ruzaba rwamaze kwemezwa nibura mu kwezi gutaha kwa cumi.

Nirwemezwa, bizaba bivuze ko bazahita batubura bagakora doze nibura miliyoni 100 bitarenze impera za 2020, ndetse birashoboka ko bagera kuri doze miliyari 1.3 ahagana ku mpera za 2021.

Hari kompanyi zisaga 20 zikora imiti ziri mu magerageza y’inkingo zabo.

Ntabwo zose zizaba inkingo zikora neza zemewe – ubusanzwe 10% gusa by’inkingo ziri kugeragezwa ni zo zikora neza. Icyizere ni uko abari kurushaka ari benshi no kubona nyinshi zikora bishoboka.

Gusa nubwo rumwe muri izi nkingo rwakwemezwa ko rukora neza, kuba ruzahita ruba iyanga (rucyeya cyane) nta wubishidikanya.

Kurwanya kurwikubira

Leta zimwe ziri gukora ibishoboka ngo uruzaboneka ruzazigereho vuba, zirakora amasezerano yo guhabwa miliyoni za doze zarwo na kompanyi ziri kuzikora na mbere y’uko ubuziranenge bwazo bwemezwa.

Leta y’Ubwongereza yonyine imaze gusinya amasezerano y’agaciro katatangajwe yo kubona inkingo esheshatu mu ziri gukorwa, zakwemezwa cyangwa zitakwemezwa ko zikora.

Leta ya Amerika yizeye kuzabona doze miliyoni 300 nibura mu kwezi kwa mbere kubera ishoramari mu kwihutisha kubona urukingo.

Ikigo cya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika cyo kurwanya ibyorezo (CDC) cyamaze no kugira inama za leta kwitegura gahunda zo gukingira ishobora gutangirana n’ukwezi kwa 11.

Gusa ibihugu byose ntibifite ubwo bushobozi.

Ibigo nka Médecins Sans Frontières, ubundi biba biri imbere muri gahunda zo gutwara inkingo no gukingira, bivuga ko ibiri gukorwa n’ibihugu bikomeye ari “ukwikubira kandi biteye akaga gahunda isanzwe yo gukingira”.

Ibi bigabanya ingano y’urukingo ruhabwa ibihugu ku isi cyane ku bihugu bikennye.

Mu gihe cyashize, dutanze nk’urugero, igiciro cy’inkingo z’indwara zikomeye cyatumaga ibihugu bimwe bitabasha gukingira abana indwara nka mugiga.

Dr Mariângela Simão, umukuru wa OMS wungirije ushinzwe imiti n’ibikoresho by’ubuvuzi, avuga ko bikenewe ko ibihugu bibuzwa kwikubira urukingo.

Ati: “Hazabaho ikibazo cyo kurugeza kuri bose ku buryo bungana – ko ibihugu byose bigerwaho, ntirube urw’ibishoboye kuriha menshi gusa.”

Hari itsinda rishinzwe inkingo ku isi?

OMS iri gukorana n’itsinda ryo kurwanya ibyorezo, CEPI, hamwe n’ihuriro rya za leta n’imiryango ku by’inkingo rizwi nka Gavi, mu kugira ibyo bumvikanaho.

Nibura ibihugu 80 bifite ubukungu bukomeye, kugeza ubu byemeje gahunda yiswe Covax igamije gukusanya miliyari ebyiri z’amadorari bitarenze impera za 2020 yo gufasha kugura no gutanga mu buryo budasumbanya umuti cyangwa urukingo.

Leta ya Amerika, ifite umugambi wo kuva muri OMS, ntabwo iri muri ibyo bihugu.

Gavi CEO

Kuba ku isi hari kugeragezwa inkingo nyinshi, Gavi yizeye ko nibura hari uruzaba rwabonetse kandi rwemejwe bityo doze yarwo igera kuri miliyari ebyiri bayigeze ku bantu bitarenze impera za 2021.

Dr Seth Berkley ukuriye Gavi agira ati: “Ku nkingo za Covid-19 twifuza ko ibintu bihinduka. Niba ibihugu bikize ku isi bizaba byirinze byonyine ubwo n’ubucuruzi n’imibereho y’abantu muri rusange ku isi izakomeza kuzahara kuko icyorezo cyaba gikomeje ahandi ku isi.”

Bizafata imari ingana iki?

Mu gihe miliyari z’amadorari ziri gushorwa mu gukora urukingo, izindi miliyoni nyinshi ziri gutegurwa mu kurugura no kurugeza aho rukenewe.

Agaciro ka doze imwe gaterwa n’ubwoko bw’urukingo, abarukoze n’umubare w’inkingo zifujwe.

Urugero, kompanyi y’imiti yitwa Moderna bivugwa ko iri kugurisha urukingo iri kugerageza ku giciro kiri hagati ya $32 na $37 (30,000 na 35,000Frw)

Serum Institute of India (SII), kompanyi nini ikora inkingo ku isi, igiye guhabwa miliyoni $150 na Gavi hamwe na Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ngo ikore inatange mu Buhinde no mu bindi bihugu bikennye doze miliyoni 100 z’urukingo ruzaba rwemejwe. Bavuga ko igiciro cyo hejuru kizaba ari $3 (2,900Frw) kuri doze imwe.

Gusa abazakingirwa biteganyijwe ko benshi batazishyuzwa.

Abazakingirwa biciye mu miryango nterankunga ku isi, nabo ntabwo bazarwishyura.

Ni bande bazaruhabwa mbere?

Kompanyi ziri gukora inkingo za Covid-19 si zo zizagena abazakingirwa mbere y’abandi.

Gahunda yo gukingira
Sir Mene Pangalo, umukuru wungirije wa AstraZeneca, yabwiye BBC ati: “Buri muryango cyangwa igihugu ni bo bazagena abazakingirwa mbere.”

Kubera ko inkingo zizaboneka mbere zizaba nkeya, kugabanya impfu ku barwaye no kurinda abakora mu nzego z’ubuzima ni byo bishobora kuzitabwaho mbere.

Umugambi wa Gavi ni uko ibihugu byasinye gahunda ya Covax, ibikize n’ibikennye, bizahita bihabwa doze ingana na 3% by’abaturage babyo – ingano ihagije yo kurinda abo mu nzego z’ubuzima.

Uko izindi nkingo zizagenda zituburwa, ibihugu bizahabwa izingana na 20% by’umubare w’ababituye – iki gihe abarengeje imyaka 65 ni bo bazitabwaho n’andi matsinda y’abantu afite ibyago byinshi byo kwandura.

Nyuma y’uko ibihugu byose bibonye 20%, urukingo noneho ruzahabwa ibihugu hari ibikurikijwe, nk’uburyo igihugu cyugarijwe na Covid-19.

Gukingira

Ibihugu bifite igihe ntarengwa cya tariki 18 z’uku kwezi kwa cyenda ngo byinjire muri iyi gahunda binatange umusanzu wabyo bitarenze tariki 09 z’ukwezi gutaha kwa cumi. Ibiganiro birakomeje ku ngingo nyinshi zirebana n’urukingo rw’iki cyorezo.

Mu kwezi kwa karindwi, inama y’ubutegetsi ya Gavi yemeje ibihugu 92 bizafashwa muri gahunda ya Covax, ibyo bihugu birimo u Burundi n’u Rwanda ndetse na DR Congo, Tanzania na Uganda.

Gavi ivuga ko ibihugu bikize biyirimo bishobora guhabwa inkingo ziri hagati ya 10% na 50% by’abaturage babyo, ariko ko nta gihugu kizahabwa urukingo rwo gukingira abarenze 20% ibindi bihugu byose biyirimo bitarahabwa icyo gipimo.

Dr Berkley avuga ko igipimo cya 5% cy’urukingo ruzaba rwabonetse kizashyirwa ku ruhande, “rugahabwa imiryango ifasha kugira ngo ikingire urugero impunzi n’abandi bo gufashwa”.

Ni gute urukingo rukwirakwizwa ku isi?

Kugemura urukingo mu dusanduku

Byinshi bizaterwa n’urukingo ruzaba rwabonetse.

Urukingo rukenera kubikwa ahari ubukonje rukenera.

OMS, UNICEF, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), basanzwe bafite gahunda y’inkingo n’uburyo zitwarwamo ku isi mu byitwa “cold chain”.

Ibyo ni imodoka zifite ibikoresho bikonjesha, uburyo bwo gukonjesha bukoresha imbaraga z’izuba, kugira ngo urukingo ntiruhindure igipimo cy’ubukonje kuva ruvuye aho rwakorewe kugeza rutewe umuntu.

Inkingo ubusanzwe zikenera kuguma mu bukonje buri hagati ya dogere 2°C na 8°C.

Gusa urukingo rushya rukenewe n’abantu benshi ku isi kurusha izindi zose ruzatuma ibikoresho bisanzwe biba bicyeya cyane.

Barbara Saitta, umujyanama wa MSF, yabwiye BBC ati: “Gutwara no gukomeza kubika inkingo muri buriya buryo byari bisanzwe ari ikibazo gikomeye.

“Hazakenerwa kongerwa ibikoresho bya ‘cold chain’, guhora hateguwe ubundi buryo bukonjesha ibyo byuma igihe amashanyarazi acitse, gusana no gusimbuza ibyangiritse, n’ubwikorezi bwabyo”.

Inkingo

AstraZeneca yo yamaze gusaba ko urukingo rwayo rwazabikwa mu bikoresho by’ubukonje buri hagati ya dogere 2°C na 8°C.

Gusa bisa nk’aho hari izindi nkingo zishobora kuzakenera kubikwa ahantu hari ubukonje bwa -60°C cyangwa no munsi, mbere y’uko ruterwa umuntu.

Barbara Saitta ati: “Kugira ngo urukingo rwa Ebola rugume ahantu hari -60°C byadusabye ibindi bikoresho bishya byo kuruzana no kurubikamo, kongeraho gutoza abantu bo gukoresha ibintu bishya”.

Hari ikindi kibazo ku bagomba gukingirwa. Gahunda z’inkingo kenshi zireba abana, bityo abakingira ubu bazaba bagomba gukingira abantu badasanzwe babikorera.

Mu gihe isi ihanze amaso abahanga ngo bakore akazi kabo, ibindi bibazo byinshi nabyo biri imbere. Gusa urukingo si yo ntwaro yonyine yo kurwanya coronavirus.

Dr Simão wo muri OMS ati: “Inkingo si cyo gisubizo gusa. Hakenewe n’ubuvuzi bwayo, hakenewe kugabanya impfu, bityo hakenewe imiti n’urukingo.

“Iruhande rw’ibyo, hakenewe n’ibindi nko guhana intera, kwirinda ahari abantu benshi n’ibindi.”

 

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