September 18, 2020

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Urukingo rwa Coronavirus ruri imbere mu gutanga icyizere rwabaye ruhagaritswe

Igeragezwa rya nyuma ry’urukingo rwa coronavirus, rwakozwe n’uruganda rw’imiti AstraZeneca na Kaminuza ya Oxford yo mu Bwongereza, ryabaye rihagaritswe nyuma yuko umwe mu barugeragerezwagaho mu Bwongereza rumugizeho ingaruka mbi.

Uruganda AstraZeneca rwavuze ko uko kuba igeragezwa rihagaritswe ari “ibisanzwe” mu gihe habayeho “indwara idasobanutse”.

Ibiva mu mageragezwa y’uru rukingo biri gukurikiranirwa hafi mu bice bitandukanye by’isi nkuko BBC dukesha iyi nkuru yabitangaje.

Urukingo rwa AstraZeneca na Kaminuza ya Oxford rubonwa nk’uruhabwa amahirwe akomeye yo kuba urukingo nyarwo mu nkingo za Covid-19 zibarirwa muri za mirongo zirimo gukorwa mu bice bitandukanye ku isi.

Umuhanga muri siyansi ari mu kigo cy'inkingo cya Kaminuza ya Oxford mu Bwongereza ku itariki ya 24 y'ukwezi kwa gatandatu muri uyu mwaka wa 2020
Imirimo y’urukingo

Hashize igihe hari abafite icyizere cyinshi ko urwo rukingo rushobora kuzaba urwa mbere rwa Covid-19 rugeze ku isoko ry’imiti, nyuma yuko amageragezwa yo mu cyiciro cya mbere n’icya kabiri agenze neza.

Kugera mu cyiciro cya gatatu cy’igeragezwa byabayeho mu byumweru bishize. Muri iki cyiciro rwari rurimo kugeragerezwa ku bantu bagera ku 30,000 bo muri Amerika, mu Bwongereza, Brazil n’Afurika y’epfo.

Amageragezwa y’urukingo yo mu cyiciro cya gatatu akenshi akorerwa ku bantu babarirwa mu bihumbi ndetse ashobora kumara imyaka myinshi.

Abarukoze bavuze iki?

Ibikorwa byabaye bihagaze mu bice byose byo ku isi aho urwo rukingo rwarimo kugeragerezwa, mu gihe harimo gukorwa amagenzura yigenga ku bijyanye n’amakuru ku ngaruka ku buzima mbere yuko hafatwa icyemezo niba igeragezwa ryarwo ryakongera gutangira, nkuko umunyamakuru wa BBC Fergus Walsh ukuriye ishami ry’inkuru ku buvuzi abivuga.

Umuvugizi wa Kaminuza ya Oxford yagize ati:

“Mu magerageza akorewe ku bantu benshi, uburwayi bubaho ariko bugomba kugenzurwa mu buryo bwigenga mu kurebana ibi ubushishozi”.

Ubu bubaye ubwa kabiri igeragezwa ry’urukingo rwa coronavirus rwa Kaminuza ya Oxford ribaye rihagaritswe, nkuko umunyamakuru wa BBC Fergus Walsh akomeza abivuga.

Ibintu nk’ibyo byo kuba igeragezwa ry’urukingo rihagaritswe bisanzwe bibaho mu magerageza y’inkingo akorewe ku bantu benshi, kandi biba igihe umuntu wo mu bemeye kurugeragerezwaho arwaye akajyanwa mu bitaro kandi icyateye ubwo burwayi bwe kidahise kimenyekana.

Byibazwa ko amageragezwa y’uru rukingo rwa Kaminuza ya Oxford ashobora kongera gutangira mu minsi iri imbere.

Urubuga rw’amakuru y’ubuzima, Stat News, rwatangaje iyi nkuru bwa mbere, rwavuze ko amakuru arenzeho ajyanye n’uwo wo mu barugeragerezwagaho mu Bwongereza rwagizeho ingaruka atahise amenyekana.

Ariko urwo rubuga rwasubiyemo amagambo y’umuntu waruhaye amakuru avuga ko byitezwe ko uwo muntu akira.

Iby’ingenzi kuri urwo rukingo

Uru rukingo rwa coronavirus rwakozwe na Kaminuza ya Oxford yo mu Bwongereza mbere rwagaragazaga ko nta kibazo ruteza kandi rukangura ubwirinzi bw’umubiri bukirwanaho.

Amagerageza yarwo yakorewe ku bantu 1,077. Yagaragaje ko kuruterwa byatumye biremamo ubwirinzi (antibodies) n’uturemangingo rwa ‘T-cells’ dushobora kurwanya coronavirus.

Icyo gihe byavuzwe ko ibyagezweho n’ubu bushakashatsi bitanga icyizere cyinshi, ariko hakiri kare cyane kumenya niba ibi bihagije ngo bitange ubwirinzi bw’iyi virusi.

Ubu hari gukorwa andi magerageza akorewe ku bantu benshi kurushaho.

Leta y’Ubwongereza yamaze gutanga ‘commandes’ z’uducupa miliyoni 100 tw’urwo rukingo.

Uru rukingo rukora gute?

Uru rukingo – rwitwa ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 – ruri gukorwa ku muvuduko mwinshi cyane ku kigero kitari cyarigeze kibaho mbere.

Rukozwe muri virusi yakorewe muri ‘ laboratoire’ itera ibicurane mu nguge.

Rwarahindaguwe cyane, mbere na mbere kugira ngo rudateza ubwandu mu bantu, ariko nanone no kugira ngo “ruse” na coronavirus.

Abahanga muri siyansi bakoze ibi bimurira bimwe mu bigize coronavirus bizwi nka ‘spike protein’ – iki kikaba ari igikoresho cy’ingenzi ikoresha mu kugaba igitero ku turemangingo twacu – mu rukingo barimo gukora.

Ibi bivuze ko uru rukingo rusa na coronavirus nyirizina, noneho ubwirinzi bw’umubiri bukitoza uburyo bwo kuyihashya.

Prof Andrew Pollard, wo mu itsinda ry’ubushakashatsi ryo kuri Kaminuza ya Oxford, aherutse kugira ati:

“Twishimiye cyane ibyagezweho byatangajwe uyu munsi [ku wa mbere]…”

“Ariko ikibazo cy’ingenzi buri muntu ashaka kumenya ni ukumenya niba uru rukingo rukora, rutanga ubwirinzi…turacyategereje kubimenya”.

Ubu bushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko 90% by’ababukoreweho bahise bagira ubwirinzi kuri coronavirus bamaze guhabwa urwo rukingo inshuro imwe (‘dose’ imwe).

Abantu 10 gusa ni bo baruhawe kabiri (‘doses’ ebyiri), kandi bose bahise bagira ubwirinzi burwanya coronavirus.

Prof Pollard ati: “Ntabwo tuzi ikigero gicyenewe cy’ubwirinzi, ariko dushobora kubwongera ku kigero cyo hejuru cyane hashoboka dutanga ‘dose’ ya kabiri”.

Nta kibazo ruteza?

Yego, ntacyo, ariko hari ingaruka ruteza zo ku ruhande.

Nta ngaruka zashyira ubuzima mu kaga urwo rukingo ruteza, ariko 70% by’abantu bakoreweho ubushakashatsi kuri urwo rukingo bamwe bagize ikibazo cyo guhinda umuriro, abandi barwara umutwe.

Abashakashatsi bavuga ko ibi bishobora gukizwa no gufata ibinini bya ‘paracetamol’.

Prof Sarah Gilbert, wo kuri Kaminuza ya Oxford, agira ati:

“Haracyari akazi kenshi ko gukora mbere yuko twemeza niba urukingo rwacu ruzafasha mu guhashya icyorezo cya Covid-19, ariko ibi twagezeho by’ibanze biratanga icyizere”.

Ni iki gikurikiyeho muri iri gerageza?

Kugeza ubu ibyagezweho biratanga icyizere, ariko intego y’ibanze ni ukumenya niba koko uru rukingo rutekanye kuburyo rwahabwa abantu nta kibazo.

Ubu bushakashatsi ntabwo bugaragaza niba rushobora gukingira abantu ntibarware cyangwa niba rushobora kugabanya ibimenyetso bya Covid-19.

Mu Bwongereza, abantu barenga 10,000 ni bo bagiye gukorerwaho igice cy’ubu bushakashatsi gikurikiyeho.

Ariko, aya magerageza y’uru rukingo yarongerewe agera mu bindi bihugu kuko ikigero cya coronavirus kiri hasi mu Bwongereza, bikaba byagorana rero kumenya niba uru rukingo rutanga umusaruro.

Hari gukorwa andi magerageza magari yarwo ku bantu 30,000 muri Amerika ndetse no ku bantu 2,000 muri Afurika y’epfo hamwe no ku bantu 5,000 muri Brazil.

Hari no gusabwa ko hakorwa amagerageza yo guhinyuza azwi nka ‘challenge trials’, aho abantu bakingiwe bakwanduzwa coronavirus ku bushake.

Ariko, kuri iki, hari impungenge za kinyamwuga zo kwirinda kubikora bitewe nuko nta muti uriho wa coronavirus.

Ruzangeraho ryari?

Birashoboka ko urukingo rwa coronavirus rutanga umusaruro ruzemezwa mbere y’impera y’uyu mwaka, ariko ntabwo ruzahita rusakara ku isi hose.

Abakora mu rwego rw’ubuvuzi no kwita ku barwayi ni bo bazaruhabwa mu ba mbere.

Cyo kimwe n’abageze mu zabukuru kuko bafatwa nk’abafite ibyago byinshi cyane byo kwandura Covid-19 bitewe n’ikigero cy’imyaka yabo no kuba baba basanzwe barwaye izindi ndwara zijyanye n’izabukuru.

Ariko, gutanga urukingo mu bice bitandukanye ku isi bishoboka ko, nibyihuta cyane bishoboka, bizaba mu mwaka utaha, niba ibintu byose bigenze neza uko byateganyijwe.

Minisitiri w’intebe w’Ubwongereza Boris Johnson yagize ati:

“Birumvikana ko mfite icyizere, ndikubisabira, ariko kuvuga ko nizeye 100% ko tuzabona urukingo muri uyu mwaka, byaba, nubwo bibabaje bwose, ari ugukabya”.

“Aho ntiturahagera”.

Kugerageza izindi nkingo byo bigeze hehe?

Uru rukingo rwa Kaminuza ya Oxford yo mu Bwongereza si rwo rwa mbere rugeze kuri iki cyiciro, hari n’amatsinda yo muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika no mu Bushinwa nayo yatangaje ibyagezweho nk’ibi.

Kompanyi Moderna yo muri Amerika ni yo yabaye iya mbere mu kugera kuri iki cyiciro kandi urukingo rwayo rushobora kurema ubwirinzi (antibodies) buganza coronavirus.

Batera mu mubiri akaremangingo ka coronavirus (coronavirus RNA), kagahita gatangira gukora proteyine za virusi mu rwego rwo gukangura ubwirinzi bw’umubiri ngo butangire guhangana na coronavirus nyayo.

Kompanyi za BioNtech na Pfizer na zo zageze ku bishimishije muri uru rwego, zikoresheje urukingo rugendeye kuri RNA.

 

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