October 21, 2020

The Source Post

Real news from real source

Ni nde ukwiye kubazwa iby’igwingira ry’abana b’abanyarwanda?

Yanditswe na Deus NTAKIRUTIMANA

Abayobozi bakunze kuvuga ko umutungo uruta iyindi u Rwanda rufite ari abantu. Ni mu gihe abahanga bavuga ko ushaka kubaka igihugu mu buryo burambye ateza imbere uburezi. Nyamara icyo uburezi bugamije gishobora gukomwa mu nkokora n’ibirimo igwingira rya ba bantu [abana], rigira ingaruka zikomeye ku mitekerereze ye, bityo ntatange umusaruro yari akwiye gutanga, kubera ya mitekerereze iba itageze ku rwego rwakagombye, bityo n’igihugu kikahahombera.

U Rwanda rufite abahanga mu nzego zitandukanye batanga umusaruro. Nyamara ntawe utakwishimira ko bakomeza kwiyongera rukagira inzobere ziruseho mu by’isanzure mu bya siyansi n’ubundi bumenyi. Ikibazo cy’igwingira gishobora kuba nyirabayazana, wenda ku rugero ruto, ariko narwo rutakwirengagizwa kuko ubushakashatsi ku buzima n’imibereho y’abaturage (Demographic Health Survey-DHS), bwakozwe mu mwaka wa 2015, bwerekanye ko abana 38% bari munsi y’imyaka itanu bafite ikibazo cy’igwingira. Rya gwingira rigira ingaruka ku mitekerereze n’imikorere ikwiye y’ubwonko. None se ni nde nyirabayazana wo gutuma u Rwanda rukomeza kugira abana bagwingira?

Kugwingira ni iki? Bigira izihe ngaruka?

Kugwingira ni ingaruka z’imirire mibi no kurwaragurika ndetse no kutitabwaho k’umwana. Abahanga mu byubukungu bemeza ko bihombya ubukungu bw’igihugu ku kigero cya 3% umusaruro mbumbe wacyo. Bongeraho ko iyo ushoye ifaranga rimwe mu kurwanya igwingira ribyara inyungu yikubye inshuro 16 iyo umwana akuze.
Aba bahanga bavuga ko hafi 80% by’ubwonko bw’umwana bwirema mu myaka itandatu ya mbere, yagwingira akaba atakaje amahirwe atazongera kumugarukira, mu gihe yagwingiye mu mitekerereze, mu bwonko no mu gihagararo.

Ibitera igwingira

Ikibazo cy’imirire mibi mu bana, kibatera kugwingira giterwa n’ubukene n’ibindi bibazo birimo kutaringaniza urubyaro, gusama inda zitateganyijwe cyane ku bangavu bakabyara abana badashoboye kurera. kutita ku bana n’ubumenyi buke nkuko Dr Diane Gashumba wari Minisitiri wUbuzima yigeze kubibwira Inteko ishinga amategeko yu Rwanda.

Igwingira rihagaze rite mu Rwanda?

Hejuru y’icya kabiri cy’abana bari munsi y’imyaka 5 bari bugarijwe n’ikibazo cyo kugwingira mu myaka 2000, nkuko byagaragajwe na bwa bushakashatsi ku buzima n’imibereho y’abaturage (Demographic Health Survey-DHS), bwakozwe mu 2005. Icyo gihe bwahishuye ko abana 51% bari bafite ikibazo cy’igwingira.

Mu myaka 10 yakurikiyeho iyi mibare yaje kugabanuka bagera kuri 38%, ariyo nayo ikigenderwaho uyu munsi kuko nta yindi iratangazwa nyuma yayo. Muri Afurika abana basaga miliyoni 58 muri 2018 bagaragazaga iki kibazo cy’igwingira.

Icyo leta itangaza ku igwingira

Ibijyanye n’igwingira ry’abana bato ni ikibazo Leta yu Rwanda ivuga ko itazatuza kidakemutse burundu. Ni ibyatangajwe na Minisitiri w’Intebe Dr Ngirente Edouard, tariki 17 Gicurasi 2018, ubwo yari mu Bigogwe mu karere ka Nyabihu, atangiza ubukangurambaga bwo kurandura igwingira ry’abana.

Bwaje bukurikira umwanzuro wa 19 wafatiwe mu nama y’igihugu y’umushyikirano yabaye mu 2011 wagarukaga ku irandurwa rya burundu ry’ikibazo cy’imirire mibi mu bana bari munsi yimyaka 5, icyo gihe bari bageze kuri 44%.

Imibare y’abana 38%(2015) iracyari hejuru, ukurikije ibitangazwa n’ishami rya Loni rishinzwe ubuzima (OMS) rivuga ko imibare yakwihanganirwa ari abatarenze 20%. Kikaba ari ikibazo cyugarije abana basaga miliyoni 150 ku Isi.

Igwingira ngo ni umwicanyi ujyana ubuzima bw’abana bucece(indwara yica bucece, Silent killer) nkuko byatangajwe na Hasserac Gammak, wari uhagarariye Banki y’Isi mu Rwanda, ubwo leta yatangizaga ubukangurambaga bwo kurandura igwingira ry’abana.

Mu myaka yashize wasangaga mu Rwanda hagaragara abana barwaye bwaki, wasangaga abenshi bahurira ku bigo nderabuzima, bitabwaho ku bijyanye n’imirire n’ibindi, aho bitaga muri santere[soma nkusoma intera]. Uyu munsi usanga ibyo bigo usanga bisa n’ibyasimbuwe n’igikoni cy’umudugudu mu gihe hamwe na hamwe hari abagihurira ku bigo nderabuzima nabwo bigishwa uko bategura indyo yuzuye cyane ku bafite abana bagaragaza imirire mibi. Ese u Rwanda ruracyari mu bihe nkibya santere?

Leta nabafatanyabikorwa agatoki ku kandi

Imiryango nterankunga ifasha leta yu Rwanda, hari iyiyemeje gufatanya muri uru rugamba rwo kurwanya imirire mibi. Hari Hinga Weze iterwa inkunga n’umuryango nterankunga w’abanyamerika uharanira iterambere mpuzamahang (USAID) ukorera mu turere 10 n’ubundi twagiye tugaragaramo ikibazo cyimirire mibi kurusha utundi mu Rwanda. Hari ihuriro ryimiryango ya sosiyete sivile irwanya imirire mibi mu Rwanda, Sun Alliance ibumbye igera kuri 79,  n’iyindi igamije imibereho myiza, ariko harimo na cya kibazo cyo kurwanya ibijyanye n’imirire, haharamirwa umuryango mwiza.

Nka Hinga Weze yiyemeje kugirira akamaro abahinzi basaga ibihumbi 70 kuva muri 2017 kugeza muri 2022 babona inguzanyo, izamura mu buryo burambye, umusaruro wabo, wita ku bahinzi bato n’abaciriritse basaga ibihumbi 530, kuzamura imirire y’abagore n’abana no kuzamura imbaraga z’ubuhinzi n’ibiribwa mu Rwanda mu bihe by’imihindagurikire y’ibihe. Uyu mushinga wishimira ko imyumvire y’ababyeyi mu kurwanya imirire mibi igenda izamuka.

Ku rundi ruhande, Leta y’u Rwanda, yagiye ishyiraho gahunda zitandukanye zigamije kurwanya iyo mirire, zirimo iyo gutanga ifu ya ‘shisha kibondo’ ku bana bari munsi yimyaka itanu bakomoka ku babyeyi bari mu cyiciro cya mbere cy’ubudehe ndetse n’abagore batwite mu rwego rwo gushyigikira imikurire y’umwana mu minsi 1000. Iyi fu yamuritswe tariki 2 Gashyantare 2017. Bamwe mu bavuga ko yatumye abana babo bava mu mirire mibi harimo ababyeyi bo mu murenge wa Kinigi mu karere ka Musanze bayifatiraga ku kigo nderabuzima cya Kinigi baganiriye na The Source Post.

Uretse shisha kibondo, tariki 19 Gicurasi 2015, Leta yatangije umushinga witwa Gikuriro ugamije kurwanya imirire mibi n’igwingira, uzamara imyaka 5 ugatwara miliyari 15 Frw, ugenewe uturere twa Nyarugenge , Kayonza, Rwamagana, Ngoma, ruhango, Nyanza na Nyabihu.

Mu 2012, u Rwanda rwakoresheje amafaranga asaga miliyari 15 Frw mu guhangana n’ikibazo cy’imirire n’igwingira.

Abana bandi bahabwa ifu ya Ongera n’ibindi biribwa bikize ku ntungamubiri, amata n’ibindi.

Imyumvire ihagaze ite?

The Source Post, imaze iminsi igera mu turere dutandukanye, ireba ibijyanye n’imibereho y’abana, cyane ibijyanye no konswa, guhabwa ibiribwa n’ibinyobwa mu rwego rwo kunganirwa mu mirire myiza. Umunyamakuru wayo yageze mu turere twa Bugesera, Karongi, Ngoma, Nyabihu na Musanze, byumwihariko mu cyumweru cyahariwe konsa cyatangiye tariki ya 1 kugeza ku ya 7 Kanama 2020.

Ababyeyi bagaragaza ko hari urwego bagezeho rw’imyumvire ku bijyanye nuko bita ku bana babo bagamije kubarinda ibibazo by’imibereho(imirire) mibi bitera na rya gwingira. Abatuye mu turere twa Ngoma na Karongi bafashwa n’umushinga Hinga Weze wita ku bijyanye n’iterambere mu ryubuhinzi, imibereho myiza nibindi, bamaze kugera ku rwego rwo hejuru ku bijyanye no kwita ku bana babo.

Abaheruka kuganira na The Source Post ku kigo nderabuzima cya Birambo giherereye mu murenge wa Gashari mu karere ka Karongi bagaragaje ko bazi ibijyanye no konsa umwana mu mezi atandatu ya mbere nta kindi bamuvangiyemo, bazi uko umwana yonswa yatamitswe ibere byibura kugera ku ruziga rw’umukara ruriho, konsa umwana bamwitayeho n’ibindi. Ibi babihuriraho nabo mu Murenge wa Mugesera mu karere ka Ngoma ubu hari abana barindwi bafite ikibazo cy’imirire mibi kubera uburwayi bavukanye.

Niyomufasha Emmerence waho mu Birambo, umubyeyi wo mu cyiciro cya mbere cy’ubudehe avuga ko gukurikiza inama yagiye agirwa n’abajyanama bubuzima bahuye n’umushinga Hinga Weze, kandi n’ubumenyi bahabwa na leta (ku kigo nderabuzima) zatumye umwana we atagira ikibazo cyimirire mibi.

Umubyeyi ukibyara ntazahuga

Ku kigo nderabuzima cya Birambo, The Source Post yahuye n’umubyeyi witwa Nyirakamana Beatrice wimyaka 38 wari umaze iminsi umunsi umwe ahabyariye umwana wa gatandatu. Yabwiye umunyamakuru ko umwana we atazagira ibibazo bijyanye n’imibereho mibi, imirire n’ibindi byatuma agwingira.

Agira ati “Nipimishije inshuro enye ku kigo nderabuzima nkuko tubisabwa n’abajyanama b”ubuzima, umwana wanjye nahise mwonsa nkimara kumubyara, urumva ko nakanguye ubwonko bwe. Nzamwonsa mu gihe cy’amezi atandatu nta kindi ndamuvangira, banambwiye ko ngomba gukomeza kumwonsa ntitaye ku mirimo mfite, ndabibizeza umwana wanjye ntazagwingira, kuko no mu bandi batanu mfite nta numwe uragira ikibazo cyimirire mibi.”

Hitezwe iki?

Leta yigeze kwiha ingamba ko abana bazaba bafite ikibazo cy’igwingira bazagera kuri 18% mu 2018, bakaba 15% mu mwaka w’2024. Mu kiganiro The Source Post iherutse kugirana n’Umuhuzabikorwa wa gahunda y’igihugu mbonezamikurire y’abana bato (NECDP) Dr Anita Asiimwe mu mezi icyenda ashize, yavuze ko imbaraga leta yashyize mu guhangana n’imibereho mibi ndetse n’uruhare rw’abafatanyabikorwa bizagira icyo bikora kuri iki kibazo.

Ati “Iyo turebye aho abantu bageze basobanukirwa no kwita ku mwana uko bikwiye kandi ku gihe, dufite icyizere ko tuzabona imibare y’abafite ikibazo cy’imirire mibi izakomeza kugenda igabanuka.”

Yongeraho ati “DHS izasohoka umwaka utaha[2020], ubu tubirimo, turi gushyira hamwe byose, ibijyanye no kurera umwana uko bikwiye, ibijyanye n’imirire, isuku n’isukura, uko ababyeyi bita ku bana babakangurira ubwonko ku gihe, ni gahunda zikomatanyije zigomba kugirwamo uruhare n’inzego nyinshi.”

Iby’igabanuka ry’abana bafite ikibazo cy’imirire birashoboka nkuko imibare akarere ka Bugesera katangaje icyo gihe ibyerekana. Umuyobozi wako Mutabazi Richard avuga ko muri 2018 bari bafite abana bari mu munsi y’imyaka itanu 1900 bari bafite ikibazo cy’imirire mibi, mu mezi 9 ashize aba bana ngo bari hagati ya 300 na 200. Ibyo ngo babikesha gahunda bihaye yo kujya guhangana n’iki kibazo bahereye hasi aho kivugwa, bise One in one ikotaniro.

Dr Asiimwe avuga ko igikwiye gukorwa ari ukuzamura imyumvire y’ababyeyi bakamenya ko imyaka ya mbere y’umwana(kuva avutse kugeza ku myaka 6)ari yo igomba kwitabwaho cyane, bamenye ko kugwingira bikunze kuba umwana atarageza imyaka 2 ndetse no kongera ingo mbonezamikurire ikagera ku bana benshi.

Imyumvire y’abanyarwanda mu guhangana n’iki kibazo iragenda yiyongera. Leta igenda ibegereza abarimu mu byubuzima babafasha mu buryo budasanzwe [abajyanama bubuzima], abafatanyabikorwa bayo nabo ntibagoheka.

Leta irakora ariko hari abayica mu rihumye barimo bamwe mu bayobozi banyereza ibyagombaga kuzahura ubuzima bw’aba bana!!! Mu karere ka Burera hari uwari umunyamabanga nshingwabikorwa w’umurenge wigeze gufatwa mu iduka rye hacururizwamo ku bwinshi ifu ya shisha kibondo, ahanishwa kwirukanwa. Hari ababyeyi bagurisha ibyo bahabwa ngo bitabare abana babo. Hari amadini yigisha ko kubyara benshi nta kibazo. Hari ababyeyi bigira ntibindeba, batita ku bana, bamarira amafaranga mu tubari….

Aba se n’abandi batubahiriza inshingano zabo ntibaba nyirabayazana wo gutuma u Rwanda rukomeza kugira abana bagwingira?

Ifoto yakoreshejwe hejuru ni iya UNICEF.

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