September 23, 2020

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Malaria: Ubushakashatsi bwakorewe mu Rwanda buraburira ko umuti wa Coartem uri gucika intege

Ubushakashatsi bwakorewe mu Rwanda buraburira ko udukoko dutera indwara ya Malaria turi kwigaranzura umuti usanzwe ukoreshwa mu kuyivura uzwi nka Coartem. Ni ubwa mbere bibonetse muri Afurika ko utu dukoko turi kwigaranzura uyu muti.

Ubu bushakashatsi buhuriweho n’ibigo byinshi mpuzamahanga buvuga ko uko utu dukoko turi kwigaranzura uyu muti byari byarabonetse gusa mu bihugu bimwe byo muri Aziya y’amajyepfo ashyira i burasirazuba.

Bukavuga ko kuba ibi byarabonetse mu duce tubiri dutandukanyijwe n’intera irenga kilometero 100 mu Rwanda, byashoboka ko n’ahandi ukoreshwa muri Africa ari ko bimeze.

Abenshi mu bafatwa n'abahitanwa na malaria ni abo muri Afrika yo munsi y'ubutayu bwa Sahara
Abenshi mu bafatwa n’abahitanwa na malaria ni abo muri Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara

Dr Aimable Mbituyumuremyi ukuriye ishami rishinzwe kurwanya malaria mu kigo gishinzwe ubuzima mu Rwanda, yabwiye BBC ko uwo muti ugikomeje gukoreshwa kugeza ishami rya ONU rishinzwe ubuzima ku isi (OMS/WHO) ritanze amabwiriza mashya.

Malaria iracyari indwara ihangayikishije ubuzima ku isi, cyane mu bihugu byo mu gace k’imirongo mbariro (tropics/tropiques), mu 2018 abantu barenga miliyoni 228 barayirwaye naho 405,000 irabica.

Ni iki nyirizina ubu bushakashatsi bwabonye?

Ubu bushakashatsi bwasohotse mu kinyamakuru Nature Medecine, bwakorewe ku barwayi mu duce turimo Masaka (Kigali), Ruhuha (mu karere ka Bugesera), Bugarama (mu karere ka Rusizi), Kibirizi (mu karere ka Gisagara) na Rukara (mu karere ka Kayonza).

Abashakashatsi bo mu bigo Institut Pasteur bafatanyije Rwanda Biomedical Center, OMS/WHO, Cochin Hospital na Kaminuza ya Columbia (New York, USA) bapimye amraso y’abarwayi bo muri utwo duce.

Barebaga niba umuti wa Coartem – ikinini gikubiyemo imiti ibiri artemether na lumefantrine – ukibasha kurwanya udukoko dutera malaria iyo tugeze mu mubiri.

Basanze utu dukoko turi kurwanya uyu muti mu barwayi 19 kuri 257 cyangwa se 7.4% muri kimwe mu bigo by’ubuvuzi byakozweho ubu bushakashatsi.

Dr Mbituyumuremyi ati: “Ubwo bushakashatsi bwerekanye ko iyo miti ibiri ikubiye muri Coartem umwe muri yo watangiye kugira intege nkeya kuko utwo dukoko twatangiye kugira ikitwa ‘resistance’ kuri wo”.

Abakoze ubu bushakashatsi bavuga ko haboneka kwihinduranya kw’utwo dukoko (mutation) bigamije guca intege umuti usanzwe utwica.

Umwe mu miti ya artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem) iri gukoreshwa mu Rwanda
Umwe mu miti ya artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem) iri gukoreshwa mu Rwanda

Bwana Mbituyumuremyi ati: “[Ibyo] Bivuga ko uwo muti ushobora kuba wagira ibyago byo kudakomeza gukora neza hatagize ingamba zishyirwaho”.

Ubwo umuti wa mbere wa malaria, chloroquine, wakorwaga, abashakashatsi batekerezaga ko malaria izahita icika mu gihe cy’imyaka itari myinshi.

Ariko kuva mu myaka ya 1950, udukoko dutera malaria twagiye twihinduranya turwanya imiti itwica.

Mu 2008 nibwo muri Aziya y’amajyepfo ashyira i burasirazuba byabonetse bwa mbere ko utu dukoko twatangiye kurwanya uburyo bugezweho bwo kuvura malaria.

None hagiye kuba iki?

Ubu bushakashatsi buvuga ko nubwo ikigero cyo gucika intege k’uyu muti kikiri hasi ariko ibi ari ukuburira kuboneka neza, gukwiye gutuma inzego zibishinzwe zifata ingamba.

Dr Mbituyumuremyi avuga ko uyu muti wa Coartem ukomeje gukoreshwa kuko ukivura ku gipimo kiri hejuru ya 90%, kandi ucyemewe na OMS/WHO.

Ati: “Gusa ibi ni nk’impuruza ituma hafatwa ingamba zihariye kugira ngo twitegure ko bibaye ngombwa haboneka undi wo kuwusimbura.

Bwana Mbituyumuremyi avuga ko, nubwo imibare igabanuka, ariko harebwe umubare w’abayirwara, abo yica, n’amafaranga ayitangwaho, malaria ikiri ikibazo gihangayikishije u Rwanda.

Malaria mu Rwanda/ imibare ya RBC:

2018 – 19:

  • Abayirwaye: miliyoni 3.9
  • Abo yishe: 270

2019 – 20:

  • Abayirwaye: miliyoni 2.5
  • Abo yishe: 180

Inkuru dukesha BBC

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