July 12, 2020

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Uko amazi akomoka mu Rwanda yabaye gashozantambara hagati ya Misiri na Ethiopia

Mu myaka itanu irashize,nari ku rugomero rw’amashanyarazi rwa Assouan mu Misiri. Ni urugendo rwatwaye hafi umunsi wose, ruva i Cairo rugana kuri uru rugomero, kuko kuva i Cairo ujyayo hari kilometero 920.

Mu gusura uru rugomero rwubatswe hagati y’imyaka 1960 na 1970 rutanga megawati 2100, uwasobanuriraga abari aho wo mu Misiri yakomoje iby’urwo rugomero usanga rwigwa mu mashuri atandukanye hirya no hino muri Afurika. Mu gihe yavugaga ubushongore n’ubukaka bwarwo, yavuze ko bafite impungenge ko rushobora kubura amazi bitewe na Ethiopia, iri kibaka urundi runini.

Umunya-Ethiopia wari hafi ye yahise amutuka ku mubyeyi we, yongeraho n’andi magambo menshi, bisa n’intambara ikomeye y’amagambo yahoshejwe n’abandi bantu bari hafi aho.

Aha niho namenyeye ikibazo cy’uru rugomero, cyavuye hagati y’abantu ku giti cyabo kikaba gihangayikishije ibihugu byombi, ku buryo bamwe bavuga uretse kuba hari ikimeze nk’intambara y’ubutita,ngo cyanateza intambara yeruye. Bityo kikaba cyahagurukije ibihugu birimo Amerika n’imiryango mpuzamhanga ngo yumvikanishe ibi bihugu.

Uru rugomero rwiswe Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, rw’agaciro k’amadolari miliyari 4 na miliyoni 600, biteganyijwe ko ruzatanga umuriro ukenenewe ku bantu barenga miliyoni 70 muri Ethiopia, rukazaba ari narwo runini muri Afurika, rwatangiye kwubakwa mu mwaka w’i 2011, mu gice cyitwa Nile Bleu, mu misozi ya Ethiopia ahasanzwe hisuka ibice 85% by’amazi ya Nil. Mu yandi magambo uruzi rwa Nil rufite isoko mu Rwanda, niyo uru rugomero ruzifashisha.

Isoko-muzi y’ikibazo

Ingomero z’amashanyarazi ntizinywa amazi, ariko umuvuduko Ethiopia izakenera mu bubiko bw’urwo rugomero bizagira ingakura ku kuntu yari asanzwe yisuka.

Uko bitwara umwanya munini mu kuyuzuza mu bubiko, mu gihe buzaba busumba umujyi wa Londres, bungana na metero Cube miliyari 74, niko bizagira ingaruka ku rugero rw’amazi mu ruzi.

Misiri isaba ko hakwirindwa ibyatuma amazi ya Nil agabanuka. Ni muri urwo rwego habaye ibiganiro hagati ya Misiri, Ethiopia na Sudan, bijyanye n’ibikorwa by’urwo rugomero n’uburyo rwuzuzwa amazi. Ibyo biganiro ntibyatanze umusaruro kugeza ubwo Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zigerageje guhuza izo mpande.

Ethiopia ishinja Misiri kutagaragaza ubushake bwo kugana ku masezerano.

Kubera iki Misiri yarakaye?

Abanyamisiri mu mateka bafataga Nil nk’Imana yabo n’ubu iyo myemerere hari abakiyifite. Bitwara nuko Misiri itari kubaho iyo Nil itabaho, mu yandi magambo Misiri yari gukomeza kuba ubutayu, nyamara ubu ni ikigega cy’Isi ku bijyanye n’imbuto n’imboga byerw ahameze nk’ibishanga huhirwa na Nil, biciye mu ikoranabuhanga rihambaye ryo gucisha amatiyo mu butaka. Muri rusange Misiri ikesha uburaro n’uburamuko kugeza kuri 90% ku mazi ya Nili.

Amasezerano yo mu 1929 n’ayo mu 1959 aha ibihugu bya Sudani na Misiri ububasha bwose ku ruzi Nil.

Urwo rwandiko rwo mu gihe cya gikoloni ruha ububasha bwose Misiri ku migambi yose ishobora kugira ingaruka mbi yafatwa n’ibihugu bikagira ingaruka ku igabanuka ry’ayo mazi.

Ayo masezerano ariko ntiyerekana urugero rw’amazi akenewe uko rungana ku gihugu kitari mu byayashizeko umukono, harimo Ethiopia, kandi igice ca Nil bita Nile Bleu kiri mu birekurira amazi menshi muri urwo ruzi.

Ethiopia ivuga ko ayo masezerano amaze imyaka ibaeirwa muri mirongo kandi atabuza icyo gihugu kubaka urwo rugomero, kandi ko yatangiye kurwubaka mu kwezi kwa 3 mu 2011 itabajije Misiri.

Ubukana bw’iki kibazo bwatumye Perezida wa Misiri Abdel Fattah El Sisi avuga ko atari yiteze ko azajya mu kibazo cya politiki gikomeye bk’icyo.

Kimwe mu ntambamyi y’iki gihugu ni uko iki kibazo cy’amazi gishobora kugira ingaruka ku ruzi Nasser, urundi ruzi rwakira amazi ya Nil, ruri inyuma y’urugomero rwa Aswan ari rwo rutanga amashanyarazi menshi mu Misiri.

Ethiopia ivuga ko kimwe mu byasabwe imbere ya byose na Misiri muri ayo masezerano kwari uko urwo rugomero rufatanywa n’urwa Aswan. Gusa ngo biragoye gufatanya ingomero ebyiri.

Misiri ifite amakenga ko uru rugomero rwagabanya urugero rw’amazi ya Nil rusanzwe rwaragabanutse, kandi ariyo atunze abaturage.

Bishobora no gutuma ingendo ku ruzi Nil zisubira inyuma kubera amazi yaba make, bikongera bikagira ingaruka ku buzima bw’aborozi be n’abahinzi batunzwe no kugomera amazi aho bahinga.

Kubera iki Ethiopia ikeneye urugomero runini cyane?

Amadolali angana na miliyari 4 yagenewe kubaka uru rugomero ajyanye no gushira mu bikorwa inzozi z’ibijyanye n’ubucuruzi n’ibindi bikorwa. Biteganyijwe ko Ethiopia ishobora kubona amashanyarazi angana Megawatt ibihumbi 6.

Iki gihugu gifite ubukene bw’amashanyarazi kandi 65% y’abaturage baho ntibafite internet.

Amashanyarazi azaboneka azaba ahagije, azakwira abaturage bose, anagurishwe ku bihugu bituranye na Ethiopia.

Uretse Ethiopia ni bande bandi bafite inyungu kuri uru rugomero?

Aya mashanyarazi bivugwa ko azagurishwa no ku bihugu nka Sudani, Sudani y’epfo, Kenya, Djibouti na Eritrea. Byinshi muri byo bifite ubukene bw’amashanyarazi.

None ibi bishobora kuganisha ku ntambara?

Hari amakenga ko ibi bihugu uko ari bibiri bishobora kugana mu ntambara idashobora kubonerwa umuti.

Mu 2013, hari amakuru yafashwe mu ibanga yerekana abanyepolitike bo mu Misiri basaba ko haba ibikorwa bibi kuri Ethiopia bivuye ku iyubakwa ry’urwo rugomero.

Umukuru w’igihugu Sisi nawe nyene yavuze ko yafata ingingo zishoboka zose zo kurinda amategeko yabo ajyanye n’uruzi Nil.

Minisitiri wa Ethiopia, Abiy Ahamed, yabwiye abadepite ko nta ngufu na zimwe zahagarika Ethiopia ku bijyanye no kubaka urwo rugomero ziriho.

Iby’iki kibazo byatumye umuryango ushinzwe iby’ibibazo ku Isi, International Crisis Group, rivuga ko ibyo bihugu bishobora kurwana bitewe n’urwo rugomero.

Misiri yamye ishaka ukuza kwa Amerika muri ibyo bibazo, nyuma y’aho Sisi asabiye ko Trump ahuza izo mpande, ariko Ethiopia ubwa mbere isa n’itabyemera.

Amakimbirane y’ibyo bihugu byombi bisanzwe bicuditse na Amerika, ashobora gutanga inyungu kuri bombi, nk’uko bishobora guteza ibindi bibazo. Bishobora kandi gusubiza inyuma ubucuruzi busanzwe bukomeye mu muhora wa Suez kimwe n’uwo mu ihembe rya Afurika, nk’uko abakurikiriana ibintu n’ibindi b’ikigo Washington Institute babivuga.

None ubu hariko haba iki?

Ibihugu bya Ethiopia, Misiri na Sudani byatangaje ko byiteguriye gusubira mu biganiro kuri uru rugomero.

Misiri yakunze kwerekana impungenge zikomeye ifite ku byerekeye kuzuza amazi muri urwo rugomero. Icyo gikorwa kizatangira mu byumweru biri imbere. Misiri ivuga ko kuzuza amazi muri urwo rugomero bishobora kugabanya urugero rw’amazi ikoresha.

Etiyopiya na Misiri byasabye Reta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, Loni n’izindi mpande kubishigikira muri iki kibazo. Ibihugu byombi byahuye muri Mutarama 2020 ntibyagira icyo byumvikana muri iki kiganiro.


Ntakirutimana Deus

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